The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Chapter 1 Social Science
History Question Answers Class 10th
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Terms and Concepts
- Nationalism – A sense of belonging to one nation. Feeling or pride and patriotism towards the country one belongs.
- Absolutist – Unrestricted, despotic and authoritarian often refers to a centralised repressive monarchical government.
- Utopian – An ideal situation, a vision too good to be realised in practice.
- Nation-state – A state having a common and contiguous boundary with inhabitants/people sharing common language, race and religion. Majority of its citizens develop a sense of common identity and share a common history ruled by a strong government.
- Plebiscite – A direct vote by which the people of a region, themselves decide to accept or reject a proposal.
- Sovereignty – Supreme power.
- Monarchy – Form of government headed by a monarch or a hereditary or dynastic ruler.
- The Estates General – Referred to the French parliament- an elected body which was renamed as the National Assembly after the Revolution of 1789.
- Civil Code – A systematic set of laws for the citizens.
- Habsburg Empire – The empire that ruled Austria-Hungary including the Alpine region of Tyrol, Austria, Sudetenland Bohemia. It also included Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
- Liberalism – Derived from the Latin word Liber meaning free. The idea of liberalism stands for freedom of individual and equality of all before law. Politically it refers to the government.
- Suffrage – The right to vote.
- Elle – Elle was used to measure cloth, prevalent in German state.
- Zollverein – A customs union, formed in 1834 in Prussia to remove barriers of trade.
- Conservatism – A spirit or philosophy which believes in maintaining and preserving traditional values and institutions. It prefers gradual change to quick and drastic change.
- Carbonari – A secret society of Italy consisting of young revolutionaries.
- Young Italy – A secret society founded by Mazzini at Marselles for organizing revolutionary activities.
- Ottoman Empire – Turkish empire ruled by the Caliph- The spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims.
- Romanticism – A cultural movement which aimed at developing a particular form of national sentiment and promoting a feeling of collective heritage as the basis of a nation.
- Das Volk – A German word meaning common people.
- Republic – A state where the head of the state is elected and does not hold a hereditary position.
- Feminist – People who advocate women’s rights on the basis of equality of sex.
- Ideology – System of ideas reflecting a particular social and political vision.
- Allegory – Symbol representing an abstract idea ; an idea identified through a person or a thing.
- Balkan region – A region in Europe with geographical and ethnic variation. The region covers the states of modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro. The inhabitants of the region are known as the Slavs.
- Jacobins – A French political group who contested elections after the French Revolution.
- Junkers – Large landowners of Prussia.
- Conservatism – The political philosophy that stresses the importance of traditions, established institutions, customs and prefers gradual development to a quick change.
- Ethnic – Relates to a common racial, tribal, or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with or claims.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
IMPORTANT DATES AND LANDMARKS
- 1789 – French Revolution.
- 1797 – Napoleon invades Italy; Napoleonic wars begin.
- 1804 – Napoleonic Code was introduced abolishing privileges based on birth. Upheld equality before law.
- 1814 – Fall of Napoleon; The Vienna Peace Settlement
- 1815 – Congress of Vienna. Representatives of Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
- 1821 – Greek struggle for independence begins.
- 1830 – Revolution in France.
- 1834 – Zollverein or the customs union was formed in Prussia (largest state in Germany) abolishing tariff barriers.
- 1848 – Great revolution in France and Formation of French republic and abdication of French monarch Louis Phillipe.
- 1848 – Frankfurt Parliament in Germany was convened to set up an all-German national assembly to draft a German constitution.
- 1859-1870 – Unification of Italy.
- 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont was the king of United Italy.
- 1866-1871 – Unification of Germany.
- 1871 – An assembly comprising princes of German states, representatives of army and Prussian ministers headed by Otto von Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the German empire (United Germany), headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
- 1905 – Slav nationalism gathers force in the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires.
- 1914 – Beginning of First World War.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Question Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark each)
Q.1. Who was Frederic Sorrieu ?
Ans. He was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
Q.2. Define absolutist.
Ans. A form of monarchical government that is centralised, militarised and repressive.
Q.3. Name any four countries which were part of the procession shown in Frederic Sorrieu’s print.
Ans. Germany, Australia, Hungary and Russia.
Q.4. What is a nation-state ?
Ans. A state in which the majority of its citizens and rulers, develop a sense of common identity and share history or descent.
Q.5. Identify the revolution which occurred in 1789 and gives us the clear expression of nationalism.
Ans. The French Revolution of 1789.
Q.6. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries ?
What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe ?
Ans. To transfer monarchy into democracy.
Q.7. Mention any two measures and practices that the French revolutionaries introduced to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
(i) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
(ii) A centralised administrative system was put in place.
Q.8. What was Napoleonic code ?
Ans. The Civil code of 1804 introduced by Napoleon which did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
Q.9. Mention any two features of the Napoleonic Code.
Ans. (i) It did away all the privileges based on birth.
(ii) It secured the right to property.
Q.10. Name any two countries conquered by Napoleon.
Ans. Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy.
Q.11. Ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology Of liberalism. Justify by giving one reason.
Ans. The term “liberalism’ derives from the Latin word liber meaning free. For the new middle classes of Europe liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
Q.12. Why was Zollverein formed ?
Ans. (i) In 1834, a custom union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined
by most of the German states. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over 30 to two.
(ii) It created a wave of economic nationalism which strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.
Q.13. Mention any two features of the ideology of liberalism of the 19th century.
Ans. (i) For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(ii) Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
Q.14. Name the countries which met in Vienna in 1815 for the Vienna Congress.
Ans. (i) Britain (ii) Russia
(iii) Prussia (iv) Austria.
Q.15. Who headed the Vienna Congress of 1815?
Ans. Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
Q.16. Mention any two proposals of the Vienna Congress of 1815.
Ans.(i) The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
(ii) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
Q.17. Name any two secret societies founded by Giuseppe Mazzini.
Ans. (i) Young Italy in Marseilles
(ii) Young Europe in Berne.
Q.18. Name the countries where secret societies formed on the Giuseppe Mazzini model.
Ans. Poland, France, Switzerland and Germany.
Q.19. State any one difference between conservatives and revolutionaries.
Ans. Conservatives were in favour of monarchy whereas revolutionaries were against monarchical forms.
Q.20. What was the Treaty of Vienna ?
Ans. In 1815, representatives of European powers collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
Q.21. Who were the revolutionaries ?
Ans. They were the people who were against the monarchical form of government which had been established after the Vienna Congress. The revolutionaries were in favour of the creation of nation-states.
Q.22. Who was installed in France by liberal revolutionaries after the July upheaval of 1830 ?
Ans. Louis Philippe.
Q.23. What was the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 ?
Ans. Under this Treaty Greece which was part of Ottoman Empire was recognised as an independent nation.
Q.24. Mention any two features of Romanticism.
Ans. (i) It was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the 18th century to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.
(ii) The movement glorified folk art and vernacular language.
Q.25. Who was Johann Gottfried ?
Ans. He was one of famous Romantic German philosophers who claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people-das volk.
Q.26. Mention any two impacts Of peasant uprising Of 1848 on France.
Ans. (i) A National Assembly proclaimed a Republic.
(ii) The Assembly granted suffrage to all adult males about 21.
Q.27. Why was Frankfurt Parliament rejected by Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia ?
Ans. Because the members had drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a Parliament.
Q.28. Name the chief minister who was the architect of German unification.
Ans. Otto Von Bismarck.
Q.29. Name the countries which were involved in the Seven Years War (1864—70).
Ans. Austria, Denmark, France with Germany.
Q.30. Who was proclaimed the German Emperor in 1871 ?
Ans. The Prussian king, William I.
Q.31. Name the Italian state of the middle Of 19th century which was ruled by an Italian princely house.
Ans. Sardinia — Piedmont.
Q.32. What was Young Italy ?
Ans. It was a secret society formed by Giuseppe Mazzini for the unification of Italy.
Q.33. Who were the chief architects of the unification of Italy ?
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini, King Victor Emmanuel II and Cavour.
Q.34. Who was proclaimed king of united Italy in 1861.
Ans. Victor Emmanuel II.
Q.35. Name any two Italian states before its unification.
Ans. Kingdom of Sicilies, Papal state.
Q.36. When was Ireland incorporated into the United kingdom ?
Q.37.What was the Act of Union ?
Ans. The Act of Union (1707) was an act between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose it’s influence on Scotland.
Q.38. ‘Artists in the 18th and 19th centuries found a way out by personifying a nation.’ What was it ?
Ans. They started representing a country as if it were a person.
Q.39. Mention two attributes of Liberty.
Ans. Red Cap or the broken chains.
Q.40. What do you mean by Marianne ?
Ans. Marianne was a female allegory, which represented the people’s nation in France. Her statues were erected in public squares to remind the people of the national symbol of unity.
Q.41. What do you mean by Germania ?
Ans. In Germany, Germania became the allegory in the German nation. She is represented as wearing a crown of oak leaves because in Germany the oak stands for heroism.
Q.42. Which area of Europe was known as the Balkans ?
Ans. The vast territory lying between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea comprising the modern states of Romania, Albania, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia — Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, was known as the Balkans. All these states were once the part Of the Ottoman Empire and were inhabited by the people who were broadly known as the Slavs.
Q.43. How was the anti-imperial movements that developed in different part of the world, were nationalist ?
Ans. The anti-imperial movements that were developed in different parts of the world were nationalist in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states and were united by a sense of collective national unity.
Q.44. What was the difference between 19th century nationalism and that of the first half of the 20th century ?
Ans. The spirit of nationalism of the first half of the 20th century no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment but became a narrow creed with limited ends.
Q.45. Name the major powers who were involved in the Balkan conflict.
Ans. Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary.
Q.46. Who were Slavs ?
Ans. Slavs were inhabitants of Balkan region comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia etc.
Q.47. Define nationalism.
Ans. It is a feeling of political consciousness and unity among the people of a state.
Q.48. Who remarked “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold” ?
Q.49. Name the Treaty Of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation.
Ans. Treaty of Constantinople.
Q.50. Name the event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848 ?
Ans. Greek War of Independence.
Q.51. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815 ?
Ans. The creation of nation-states as necessary.
Q.52. What is the importance of the Act of Union (1707) ?
Ans. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland had resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
Q.53. How attributes of liberty and justice were represented during French Revolution ?
Ans. (i) The attributes of Liberty were the cap or the broken chain.
(ii) Justice is generally a blind folded man carrying a pair of weighing scales.
Q.54. What did become the allegory of the German nation ? How was it represented visually ?
Ans. (i) Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
(ii) In visual representations Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as German oak stands for Heroism.
Q.55. Which was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 ?
Ans. It was the area called the Balkans. It was a region Of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greewe, Macedonia, Croatia Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
Q.56. What made the Balkans an explosive region ?
Ans. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
Q.57. Which European powers had rivalries in the Balkans and were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending their own control over the area ?
Ans. Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks each)
Q.1. When did the French Revolution take place ? Explain its impact on Europe.
Describe the events Of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts Of Europe. [CBSE 2015 (D)]
Ans. The french Revolution took place in 1789.
Impact on Europe :
(i) Formation of Jacobin Clubs : When the news of the Revolution reached the different cities of Europe, the students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin Clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790’s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
(iii) Liberalisation Of people :The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the french nation to liberate the people of Europe from depotism, in other words to help other people of Europe to become nations.
(iii) Rise of Napoleon and its impact : The conditions created by the revolution paved way for Napoleon who took several steps to reform the economy of Europe. He introduced uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency. These steps had a far reaching impacts on Europe.
Q.2. What were Jacobin Clubs ? How did their activities and campaigns help to spread the idea of nationalism abroad ? Explain.
Ans. Jacobin Club was poIitical club that came into existence in the aftermath of the French Revolution. The activities and campaigns of this club helped spread the idea of nationalism abroad in the following manner :
(i) A collective identity among the French was created by the club members.
(ii) The notion of equal rights for the people was stressed upon by the club members giving rise to a centralized idea of equality among people.
(iii) Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Q.3. Explain any four reasons how the initial enthusiasm of the people of France soon turned to hostility after Napoleon’s takeover of France.
What were the reactions of the local population to the French rule in the areas they conquered ?
Ans. (i) Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbinger of liberty.
(ii) The local population turned to hostility because they were losing political freedom.
(iii) Increased taxation and censorship outweighed the advantages of the administrative changes.
(iv) People were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
Q.4. Explain the concept of economic liberalism which developed in Europe in the 18th century.
Explain any four ideas of liberal nationalists in the economic spheres.
Ans. (i) In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(ii) The system also favoured abolition of multiple currency systems.
(iii) The system also has a common Weight or measurement system.
(iv) Creation of unified economic territory.
Q.5. Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Ans. (i) State imposed restrictions : There were many state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(ii) Multiple confederations : Most of the countries of Europe were the patchwork of small states and kingdoms making it difficult for traders to trade.
(iii) Different currencies, weights and measures : Each of these small confederations possessed its own currency, weights and measures.
Q.6. Who were revolutionaries ? What was their political ideology ?
Ans. They were the liberal nationalists who saw the creation of nation states as a necessary part of their struggle for freedom.
(i) They were against the monarchical governments that were established after the Vienna Congress.
(ii) They believed in the unification of nations.
(iii) They were in favour of liberty and freedom.
Q.7. Who was Otto Von Bismarck ? Explain his role in the unification of Germany.
Ans. Otto Von Bismarck was the Chief Minister of Prussia.
(i) Under his command Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
(ii) Otto Von Bismarck was the chief architect of the process of unification which was carried with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(iii) On 18th January, 1871 Prussian Ministers including the Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Royal Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William I of Prussia.
Q.8. “Like Germany, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation.” Justify.
“The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, was a patchwork Of many different regions and peoples.” Justify the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (i) Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire.
(ii) It was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by
an Italian Princely House.
(iii) Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.
Q.9. How was the formation of the British nation state different from other nation states like that of Germany and Italy ?
Ans. (i) In Britain the formation of a nation-state was not the result of sudden upheaval or revolution but it was a result of a long-drawn out process.
(ii) In the case of Germany and Italy there was a common culture and political traditions but in the case of Great Britain there were different ethnic groups having their own culture and traditions.
(iii) The English Parliament was an instrument through which a nation-state came to be forged whereas in other nations kings and some leaders played an important role.
Q.10. In Britain the formation of the nation state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Elaborate with the help of suitable examples.
Ans. (i) Formation of Britain was the result of a long- drawn-out process.
(ii) The English Parliament, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(iii) The Act Of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United of Great Britain’.
(iv) Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United kingdom in 1801. A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture.
Q.11. Enumerate any three features of the conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Or
Why were the European governments driven by the spirit of conservatism ?
Ans. (i) Basic beliefs : Conservatives believed that established traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.
(ii) Belief in modernisation : Most conservatives supported modernisation because they believed that it could help in strengthening traditional institutions like the monarchy.
(iii) Ways to strengthen rule : A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
(iv) Vienna Congress of 1815 : In 1815 representatives of the European powers met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the french Revolution was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(v) Against freedom and liberty : They did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic governments. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom.
Q.12. Which region was known as Balkan ? Name any four powers which were involved in the Balkan conflict.
Ans. (i) The vast territory lying between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea comprising the modern states of Romania, Albania, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, were known as the Balkans. All these states were once part of the Ottoman Empire, and were inhabited by the people who were broadly known as the Slavs.
(ii) Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary.
Q.13.Describe how the events in France affected the different cities in Europe.
Ans. When the news events in France reached the different cities in Europe it had the effects as mentioned below:
(i) Students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs
(ii) Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s.
(iii) With the break of the wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Q.14. What were the reactions of the local populations to the French rule in the conquered territories ?
Ans. The reactions of the local peoples in the conquered territories by the French were mixed. In the beginning, in Holland, Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, people welcomed the French armies as harbingers of liberty. Political freedom was advantageous but more taxes, censorship and forced conscription into the French armies for conquering rest of Europe made local population hostile to them because it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Q.15. Describe the political condition of Europe in the mid-eighteenth century.
Ans. The political condition of Europe in the mid-eighteenth century was as mentioned
(i) There were no nation states.
(ii) Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
(iii) There were autocratic monarchies in Eastern and Central Europe.
(iv) People spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
(a) For example, Habsburg Empire consisted of different regions and peoples.
(b) They did not share a collective identity or a common culture.
(c) It included German-speaking people of Bohemia as well as Italian-speaking people of Lombardy and Venetia.
(d) Half of the population of Hungary was Magyar.
(e) Such differences did not promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Q.16. When did industrialisation begin in Europe ? What were its consequences ?
Ans. (a) Industrialisation : Industrialisation had in England in the second-half of the eighteenth century. However, it took place in France and parts of the German states during the nineteenth century.
(b) Its consequences were as mentioned below :
(i) Growth of towns : Emergence of commercial classes — there was growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes in Western and some parts of Eastern Europe. This was due to the growth of industrial production and trade. The existence of commercial classes was based on production for the market.
(ii) A new working class and middle classes consisting of industrialists, businessmen, professionals came into existence. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
Q.17. Who were granted the right to vote in France during the period of revolution ?
Ans. (i) In France, the right to vote and election was granted only to property-owning men.
(ii) Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
(iii) During the period of Jacobins, all adult males were granted the right to vote.
(iv) The Napoleonic Code again granted limited right to vote. Women were reduced to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.
(v) Women and non-propertied men organized opposition movements demanding equal political rights during the nineteenth and early 20th century.
Q.18. Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. What were its results ?
Ans. (a) Cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising : The cause of the uprising was the exploitation of the weavers by the contractors. They had reduced the payments to the weavers for the goods they ordered. There was already widespread unemployment and they were living a life of extreme misery.
(b) Results : A contractor.when attacked, tried to get shelter in neighbouring village but failed. He sought the help of the army. In the exchange between the army and the weavers, eleven weavers were killed.
(c) Importance : The weavers’ uprising depict the condition of people in the villages. There was extreme poverty and unemployment. People were exploited by rich people. Army also helped them to crush such uprisings or opposition. Thus, the government did not care for the welfare Of the poor.
Q.19. Describe the nature of nationalism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
Ans. The nature of nationalism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century was as mentioned below:
(i) It no longer retained its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first-half of the century but a narrow creed with limited ends.
(ii) During this period nationalist groups increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war.
(iii) The major European manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject people in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Long Answer Type Questions
(4/5 Marks each)
Q.1. Analyse the theme Of Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings.
How has the French artist, Frederic Sorrieu, visualised in his first print of a series of four prints his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics’ ? [CBSE 2008 (D)2012]
Ans. (i) The first print of the series shows the people of Europe and America — men and women
of all ages and social classes — marching in a long train and offering homage to the ‘Statue
of Liberty’ as they pass by it.
(ii) A female figure was shown with the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the
Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
(iii) On the earth, in the foreground of the image, lie the shattered remains of the symbols of
(iv) In Sorrieu utopian vision, the people Of the world are grouped as distinct nations,
identified through their flags and national costumes.
(v) From the heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene. They have been
used by the artists to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.
Q.2. When did the first clear-cut expression of nationalism come in France ? How did the French Revolution lead to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens ? Explain any three measures taken by the French revolutionaries in this regard. [CBSE 2008, 2010]
Analyse the measures or practices which created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. [CBSE March 2011, 2012 (0), 2015 (0), 2016]
What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe ? Explain. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. The First clear cut expression of nationalism came in France with the French Revolution in 1789. French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
(i) The introduction of La Patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens, and renamed ‘the National Assembly’.
(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken, and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French was declared as the common language of the nation.
Q.3. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him ? [CBSE March 2012]
Explain any four provisions of the Napoleon Civil Code, 1804. [CBSE 2008, 2010 (D), March 2011]
Explain the revolutionary principles incorporated by Napoleon in the administration of France during his reign. [CBSE 2011]
After 1804 how did the peasants, artisans and new businessmen enjoy freedom in the towns of Europe ? [CBSE 2014]
“Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyse the statement With arguments. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. (i) Napoleon introduced the Napoleonic Code which did away with all privileges based on
birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
(ii) In many parts of Europe like in the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy and Germany, he
simplified the administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed
peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(iii) Napoleon removed the guild restrictions from the towns.
(iv) He laid stress on infrastructure i.e., transportation. communication and the banking system. These new reforms were appreciated by the peasants, workers, businessmen, traders and even by the common people.
(v) Uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, and a common national currency was introduced.
Q.4. Explain the major political features Of mid-eighteenth century, Europe.
”Till the mid eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe.” Support statement with four examples. [CBSE 2011, 14]
Ans. (i) Even the large countries like Germany and Italy were divided into small kingdoms.
(ii) The Eastern and Central Europe were under the autocratic monarchies within the
territories having diverse people. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective
identity or a common culture.
(iii) The people spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
(iv) The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary, for example, was a
patchwork of many different regions and peoples.
(v) In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
Q.5. Explain the social composition of the mid- eighteenth century, Europe.
Ans. (i) Socially and politically the landed aristocracy was a dominant class in the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across the regional divisions.
(ii) They owned estates in the countryside and also the town houses. They spoke French for the purpose of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage.
(iii) This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group.
(iv) The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry
(v) The growth of industrial production and trade gave rise to the middle class.
Q.6. Explain the concept of liberal Nationalism which developed in Europe in the early 19th century.
What did the concept of liberal nationalism politically emphasise during the 19th century.
Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the 19th century.
Explain the ideas associated with liberalism in early 19th century Europe.
Ans. (i) The ideology of liberalism was an important factor which promoted the sense of nationalism, and the nation-state. The term, liberalism has been derived from the Latin word, ‘liber’ meaning ‘free’. Different people interpreted the meaning of liberalism differently in their own ways.
(ii) For the new middle classes liberalism stood for the freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law. (iii) Politically, it meant the concept of government by consent.
(iv) For some, it meant having the right of private property.
(v) In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets. The traders demanded free movement of goods and capital.
Q.7. Who was Frédéric Sorrieu ? Describe main features of the first print prepared by him in 1848 ?
Ans. (a) Frédéric Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of “democratic and social republics” as he called them.
(b) The main features of the first print of the series were as mentioned below :
(i) It shows men and women of all ages of Europe and America offering homage to the statue of Liberty.
(ii) Liberty was personified as a female figure with the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other.
(iii) In the foreground are the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
(iv) Procession is led by the USA and Switzerland who were already nation states. Other people are following them.
(v) From heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.
(vi) In Sorrieu’s uptopian vision, the peoples of the world were grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Thus many issues have been visualised by Sorrieu in his prints but it is a vision that can be realised.
Q.8. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Describe the four stages of the unification of Germany.
Examine the main features of the process of German unification under the leadership Of Otto Von Bismarck. [CBSE March 2012]
Ans. (i) Frankfurt Parliament 1848 : The Frankfurt Parliament tried its best for the unification of Germany under the leadership of King Wilhelm IV of Prussia, but it failed.
(ii) Unification under the leadership of Prussia : Prussia took on the leadership of the Movement for national unification. It’s chief minister, Otto Von Bismarck, was the architect of the process, and carried out the movement for national unification with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy.
(iii) Role Of Bismarck : Bismarck was one of the greatest sons of Prussia who accomplished the supreme task of the unification of Germany with the help of the army bureaucracy. He was convinced that the unification of Germany could be achieved only by the Princes, and not by the people. He wanted to achieve his aim by not merging Prussia into Germany but rather, by expanding Prussia into Germany.
(iv) Three Wars : Bismarck’s object of unifying Germany was accomplished by three wars, which were fought during a brief period of seven years (1864 — 1870).
(v) Final Unification of Germany : The above wars ended in Prussian victory and helped in completing the process of unification. On January 18, 1871, in the Royal Palace of Versailles, the King of Prussia was crowned as the German Emperor and the ceremony symbolised in the eyes of the world, the newly born unity of the German people.
Q.9. Briefly trace the process of the unification of Britain.
Describe in brief the process by which the British nation came into existence. [CBSE 2010 2013 ]
Ans. (i) Economic Prosperity : The industrial revolution in the economic prosperity of the English nation. With the help of trade and wealth, it succeeded in extending its influence over other nations of the Island.
(ii) Role of Parliament : The English Parliament, which had seized from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(iii) The Act of Union : The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom.
(iv) Incorporation of Ireland into the United Kingdom: Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801 under the Act of Union, 1801. Before its incorporation, the country was deeply divided between the Catholics and the Protestants. The English helped the
Protestants of Ireland to impose their dominance over a largely Catholic country.
(v) National Symbols: A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain—the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem ( God Save Our Noble King), the English language—were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Q.10. Who were Marianne and Germania ? What was the importance of the way in which were they portrayed ?
How were different nations visualised by the artists in the 18th and the 19th centuries ? Explain by giving eg.
Explain the significance of portraying nations as female figures by the European artists of the 18th and 19th centuries. [CBSE 2010]
How had the female figure become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe ? Analyse. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. (i) Artists in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries started representing nations in
human forms. Nations were then portrayed as female figures.
(ii) The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular
woman in real life; rather it sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
(iii) Even after the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
(iv) These ideals were represented through specific objects or symbols. The attributes of
Liberty were the red cap, or the broken chain, while Justice was generally a blindfolded woman, carrying a pair of weighing scales.
(v) In France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined
the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. To popularise the national symbols, the statues of Marianne were erected in public squares. Marianne’s images were also marked on coins and stamps.
(vi) Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations,
Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Q.11. What do you understand by Liberalism ? Describe their ideas in the political, social and economic spheres.
Ans. (a) The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber, meaning free. Thus, for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law.
(b) Political and economic ideas supported by the liberals were as given below :
(i) Political ideas :
(1) It emphasised the concept of government by consent.
(2) Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for the end of and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
(3) They did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
(4) In revolutionary France, which was the first example of liberal democracy, the right to vote and election was exclusively granted to property-owning men. Men without property and women were not granted political rights. Thus in the 19th and 20th centuries there were movements demanding equal political rights.
(ii) Economic ideas : They supported freedom of markets and the abolition of state- imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the 19th century this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes.
Q.12. What was zollverein ? Why was it introduced ? Describe its advantages. How did it strengthen nationalist sentiments in German states?
Ans.(a) Zollverein was a custom union that was formed in 1834 at the initiative Of Prussia and was joined by most of the German States.
(b) Causes of introduction of zollverein : In the first half of the nineteenth century there were countless small principalities in the German-speaking region. Napoleon had created a confederation of 39 states. This confederation had many drawbacks as mentioned below:
(i) Each had its own currency, weights and measures.
(ii) From Hamburg to Nuremberg there were 11 custom barriers.
(iii) Traders had to pay a custom duty at each barrier.
(iv) Duty was paid according to weight or measurement, so there were a lot of problems in calculation. The above conditions were an obstacle to economic growth. Traders and new commercial classes wanted movement of goods without any hindrance. So in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia zollverein was formed.
(c) Advantages :
(i) It was formed for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
(ii) A network of railways was created which increased mobility harnessing economic interests to national unification.
(d) It created a national unity in economic matters at a time when Germany was divided. It accustomed German states to cooperate without Austria who had not become a member of zollverein. It taught them the advantages of Prussian leadership. It was the beginning of German unity. Thus, nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments.
Q.13. What do you understand by conservatism ? Describe the objects and decisions of the Congress of Vienna and examine them.
Ans. (i) Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs and preferred gradual development to quick change.
(ii) Objects : After the defeat of Napoleon, the European powers — Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria met in Vienna. It was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The object was to undo most of the changes that had taken place during the Napoleonic wars.
(iii) Decisions of the Congress : Some major decisions of the Congress were as given below:
(a) The Bourbon dynasty was restored in France.
(b) A number of states such as Netherlands, Piedmont, were strengthened on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future. Thus, Belgium was included in the Netherlands and Genoa in Piedmont.
(c) Prussia was given important new territories on France’s western frontiers. It got a portion of Saxony.
(d) Austria got of northern Italy.
(e) Russia was given a part of Poland. She got most part of the Grand Dutchy of Warsaws and retained Finland. Russia emerged with a good number of addition and extended farther westward into Europe than ever.
(iv) Evaluation of the Congress : Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic did not tolerate criticism and dissent. They imposed censorship laws to control the newspapers, books, plays and ideas of liberty and freedom.
Q.14. During the years following the Congress of Vienna (1815) why did the liberal nationalists go underground ? Why the secret societies formed ? Describe their aims and activities with special reference to the activities of Mazzini.
Ans. (a) After the Congress of Vienna (1815) the liberal-nationalists went underground due to fear of repression by the autocratic rulers.
(b) (i) The aim of the secret societies that were formed in many European states was to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas i.e., to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Congress of Vienna and to fight for liberty and freedom.
(ii) They wanted creation of nation-states which were considered necessary as a part of freedom for struggle.
(c) Mazzini and activities of secret societies :
(i) Mazzini was the Italian revolutionary. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. Later on, he founded two societies — Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. Aim of Mazzini was to have a unified republic in Italy as the basis of liberty. He believed that the nations were the natural units of mankind.
(ii) Secret societies were formed in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(iii) As a result of the secret societies, the conservatives were frightened. Metternich described Mazzini as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order.
Q.15. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe ? [CBSE 2015]
‘Culture has played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during 18th and 19th centuries.’ Support the statement with examples. [CBSE 2016]
How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2013]
Describe the role of culture in shaping the feeling of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of the 19th century. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation : art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. Romanticism helped in developing a particular form of nationalist sentiments.
(i) Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science.
(ii) They focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings in order to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(iii) German philosopher Johann Gottfried tried to popularise the true spirit of the nation through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
(iv) The emphasis on Vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was to recover an ancient national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.
(v) In Poland which had been partitioned by the Great Powers, national feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(vi) Language too, played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
(a) After Russian occupation, the polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere.
(b) In 1831 an armed rebellion against Russian rule was crushed.
(c) After this many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
(d) Polish was used for church gatherings and all instructions. The use of polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
(e) As a result of it a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment. But the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol Of the struggle against Russian dominance.
Q16. Why was the decade of 1830’s known as the great economic hardship in Europe ? Support that statement with arguments.
Ans. The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons:
(i) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(iii) People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(iv) There was stiff competition between the products of small producers and products imported from England where goods were made by machines as industrialisation had already taken place there.
(v) Peasants’ condition was bad due to the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(vi) The prices of food had risen due to bad harvest. This had resulted in widespread
pauperism in town and country.
Q.17. What were the causes and effects of the Revolution of 1848 in France ?
Ans. (a) Causes : (i) In Europe the 1830’s were years of great economic hardship.
(ii) In 1848 too there were food shortages and widespread unemployment. As a result Of it, the population of Paris demonstrated. Barricades were erected.
(b) Results : (i) Louis Philippe abdicated the throne.
(ii) France became a Republic.
(iii) Suffrage was granted to all adult males above 21 years.
(iv) Right to work was guaranteed.
(v) National workshops to provide employment were set up.
Thus, another revolution had taken place in France which changed the government from
monarchy to a republic.
Q.18. What were the causes for the revolution by the liberals in 1848 ? Describe its events and effects.
Ans. (a) Causes : The February revolution of 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch. A republic based on universal male suffrage was proclaimed. This had an effect on the liberal middle classes in other parts of Europe — Germany, Italy, Poland and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
(b) Demands : (i) Liberal middle classes demanded constitutionalism with national unification.
(ii) They demanded the creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles i.e., a constitution freedom of the press and freedom of association.
(c) Results : The revolutions of the liberals in 1848 were suppressed by the autocratic- monarchs but even then these revolutions made the monarchs to realise that the old order could not be restored. The autocratic monarchs in the Central and Eastern Europe introduced changes that had taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
(i) Serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
(ii) More autonomy was granted to the Hungarians in 1867 by the Habsburg monarchs. Dualism was established. Austria-Hungary was to consist of two distinct independent states. Their ruler was known as Emperor in Austria and as King in Hungary.
Q.19. Explain the process of unification of Italy.
Describe the condition of Italy before unification.
Ans. (a) Condition of Italy in the nineteenth century :
(i) Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over various dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire.
(ii) During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states.
(iii) Out of these states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
(iv) The north was under Austrian Habsburgs.
(v) The centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
(vi) There was no common language too.
(b) The unification of Italy was completed in various stages :
(i) Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austria in 1859. Modena, Parma and Tuscany were added to Piedmont.
(ii) Garibaldi succeeded in South Italy and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies in 1860 and drove out the Spanish rulers.
(iii) Austria ceded Venetia to Italy in 1866.
(iv) In 1870, Rome was taken over as the French soldiers were withdrawn. Rome was made the capital of Italy.
Q.20. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
Ans. The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike the rest of Europe in the following ways :
(i) It was not the result of wars as was in Germany but a long drawn out process
(ii) Different ethnic groups – English, Welsh, and Irish had their own cultural and political traditions But’ English nation, in course of time, was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands due to her wealth, importance and power.
(iii) As a Revolution in 1688, the English Parliament was the instrument through which a nation state with England as its centre, came to be forged.
(iv) The Act of Union (1707) formed “United Kingdom of Great Britain’. As the majority of the members of British Parliament English members, a policy of repression was followed against catholic clans of Scottish highlands.
(v) In Ireland too, a similar policy was followed. There were Catholics as well as Protestants
Catholic revolts were suppressed and ultimately in 1801, Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom
(vi) A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The of the new – the British Flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (GOD Save Our Noble King), the English language — were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners In this union.
Q.21. What was the area of the Balkans ? Why was it the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 ? What was its result ?
Ans. (a) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs.
(b) Causes for being the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe in 1871 were as mentioned below :
(i) A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. However, with the weakening and disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, the nationalist tensions emerged in the area. Its European subject nationalities broke away and declared their independence.
(ii) The people of the Balkans argued that they were once independent before the foreign powers controlled them. So their object was to regain their lost independence.
(iii) Nationalist tensions emerged due to rivalries of the European powers i.e., Russia’ England, Germany, Austria-Hungary. All of these powers wanted to have their control due to one reason or the other.
(iv) Rivalries among the Balkan states — The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each one of them wanted to extend her territory at the expense of the others.
(c) Results : Rivalries of the European powers and among the Balkan states led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
VALUE BASED QUESTIONS
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow :
Q.l. “Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831 an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.”
(i) Name the three great powers that had partitioned Poland among them at the end of the eighteenth century’.
(ii) How valuable was the use of Polish language in the struggle against Russian dominance ? Can you give an example of any other country where language played a valuable role in their freedom struggle ?
Ans. (i) The three great powers — Russia, Prussia and Austria had partitioned Poland at the end of the eighteenth century.
(ii) (a) The use of Polish language became very valuable in the freedom struggle of Polish people. Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
(b) In India too language played a valuable role in the freedom struggle under the leadership of Gandhiji who communicated with people in their language. The use of common language led to political awakening among the people and they participated in the freedom struggle in large numbers.
Q.2. “Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital. In 1834, a
customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.”
(a) Which ‘conditions’ were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes ?
(b) How zolleverein proved valuable in the unification of Germany ?
Ans. (a) The ‘conditions’ means economic condition of the German-speaking regions in the
first-half of the nineteenth century. Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a
confederation of 39 states. The obstacles were as mentioned below :
(i) Each of the 39 states possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
(ii) A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a custom duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them.
(iii) Duties were often levied according to the weight and measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation.
(b) (i) The customs union or zollverein proved valuable because it abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.