Development Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 – NCERT Solutions
- Development: It is comprehensive term which includes increase in real per capita in come, improvement in living standard of people, reduction in poverty, etc.
- National development: National development is a comprehensive term which includes improvement in living standard of the people, increase in per capita income, providing social amenities like education, medical care, social, services, etc. to the citizens of the country.
- Developed economics: These are those economics which are characterized by high level pf Per Capita Income of US $ 12616 per annum or more and high standard of living, Examples: USA, Japan, Germany, UK, Singapore, etc.
- Developing economics: Those economies which are passing through the stages of growth and development. In such economies, significance of agriculture tends to decline whereas the industrial sector grows sharply. Examples: India, Indonesia, Malaysia etc.
- Economy: It is a sum total of all the economic activities like production, consumption, distribution, exchange, etc.
- National Income: It is the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus the net income from abroad during a year.
- Production: When an activity results in a valuable and useful thing. It is called as production.
- Per capita income: Per capita income is the average income of the people of a country in a definite period.
- Underdeveloped economics: Under-developed economics are the economics which are characterised by low level of per living. Such economics are not able to exploit their natural resources.
- Examples: Nepal, Myanmar, etc.
Question Bank for Development Class 10 Economics Chapter 1
Very Short Answer Type Questions (1 Mark each)
Q.1 What is development?
A. It is comprehensive term which includes increase in real per capita income, improvement in living standard of people, reduction in poverty etc.
Q.2 Mention any two development goals of landless rural labourer. [CBSE 2008.,2015]
A. (i) More days of work and better wages.
(ii) Quality eduction for this children.
Q.3 Mention any two developmental goals of a girl.
A. (i)Gender equality
(ii) Girls empowerment.
Q.4 Mention any two developmental goals of people other than income [CBSE 2018(O)]
A. (i) Equal treatment
(ii) Respect of other.
Q.5 Mention any two development goals of a rural women.
A.(i)Dignity in the household.
(ii) A safe and secure environment.
Q.6 What is national development?[CBSE 2014]
A. National development is a comprehensive term which includes improvement in living standard of the people, increase in per capita income, providing social amenities like education, medical care, social services, etc. to the citizens of the country.
Q.7 Mention any two national development goals of india.
A. (i) Corruption free society.
(ii) High per capita income.
Q.8 Which is the most important attribute for national development?
A. National income or per capita income of the nation.
Q.9 ‘For comparing countries, total Income or national income is no a useful measure. Give reason.
A. Since countries have different population, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
Q.10 What is average income or per capita income? [CBSE 2008,09,11,2011]
A. When the total national income is divded by the total population, It is called the per capita income.
Per Capita Income=National Income/Population
Q.11 What is the most important component for comparing different countries[CBSE 2010,12]
A. Per capita income.
Q.12 Which criteria is used by the World Bank to classify different countries?
A. Per capita income.
Q.13 Which organization classifies countries as rich countries and low income countries? [CBSE 2015]
A. World Bank.
Q.14 Which countries have been categorized as rich countries according to the World Development Report? [CBSE 2014]
A. Countries with per capita income of US $ 12.476 Per annum and above in 2016 are called rich countries.
Q.15 Which countries have been categorized as low income countries according to World Development Report 2016?
A. Countries with per capita income of US $ 1,025 or less are called low income countries.
Q.16 Under which category India has been placed by the World Bank Development Report.
A. Low middle income countries as India’s per capita income is less than US $ 1340.4 or less.
Q.17 What are developed countries according to World Development Report?
A. All the countries excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries which have per capita income of US $ 12,476 per annum or above have been termed as developed countries.
Q.18 What is Literacy Rate?[CBSE 2009 (D)]
A. It measure the proportion of literate population in the seven and above age group.
Q.19 What is Net Attendance ratio?
A. It is the total number of children of the age group 14 and 15, attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
Q.20 What is Gross Enrolment Ration?
A. It is the enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and higher education.
Q.21 Which Indian state has the lowest infant Mortality Rate?
Q.22 Why Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate? [CBSE 2008,2013 (F)]
A. Kerala has low IMR because :
(i) It has very high literacy rate and literate people take care of their children better as compared to illiterate.
(ii) Literate people also have high earning capacity so they can afford basic necessities for their children.
Q.23 Mention any two things which money cannot buy.
Q.24 What is Public Distribution System ?[CBSE 2009,10,11]
A. It is a food security programme under which government provided food grains and other essential items to the poor at an an affordable price.
Q.25 What is Human Development Index ? [CBSE 2015]
A. It is index prepared by the World Bank under which all the nation of the world are indexed or ranked according to their performance in various parameters like per capita income, life expectancy literacy rate.etc.
Q.26 What are the three components of Human Development index? [CBSE 2015]
A.(i) Per Capita Income
(ii) Life Expectancy
(iii) Literacy Rate
Q.27 What is India’s rank according to 2015 HDI?
Short Answer Type Questions(3 Mark each)
Q.1 (i) What is development? Mention any two features of development.
(ii) What is national income? [CBSE 2009 (D)]
A. (i) Development is a comprehensive term which includes increase in real per capita income, improvement in living standard of people, reduction in poverty, illiteracy, crime rate, etc.
- Different persons have different developmental goals.
- Income is a major component of development.
(ii) National income is defined as the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus net income coming from abroad.
Q.2 (i) State the criteria used to compare the different countries by the Human Development Report published by the United National Development Programme (UNDP).
ii) Which is the new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together?
(iii) What is meant by Human Development? [CBSE Sept.2011,2012]
(iv)Which organization measures HDR? Mention any three major indicators of HDR [CBSE Sept.2012]
A.(i) Per capita income, life expectancy at birth, literacy rate and other basic necessities like clean drinking water, sanitation etc.
(ii) Sustainability of development.
(iii) It is the process of enlarging people’s choices as well as raising the level of well being so that they can lead a purposeful and a creative life. Though the national income and the per capita income are the indicators of human development, but it includes many other elements like consumption, health, environment, education, freedom, security non-violent atmosphere, etc.
- Educational level
- Health status
- Per capita income
Q.3 (i) Mention any two important aspects of our live other than income.[CBSE 2008(D)]
(ii) How can we achieve our hopes and possibilities in the present world? [CBSE Comptt. (D) 2008]
(iii) Why has Kerala a higher Human Development Index than Punjab in spite of low per capita income? [CBSE 2009(F)Sept.2011]
A.(i) Health and education
(ii) Through democratic political process.
(iii) (a) Because it has low infant mortality rate.
(b) It has higher literacy rate.
Q.4 Mention any four characteristics of development. [CBSE Sept.2010,2011]
A.(i) Different people have different development goals.
(ii) What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may be destructive for the other.
(iii) Income is the most important component of development, but along with income, people also seek equal treatment, good health, peace, literacy, etc.
(iv) For development people look at mixed goals.
Q.5 Describe any three features of developed country.
A.(i) As per the World Bank Report 2016 any country with per capita income of US $ 12,476 per annum and above is termed as rich or developed country.
(ii) Such countries have have high literacy rate.
(iii) Most of the people of these countries are engaged in service sector.
Q.6 What is PCI? Where is it used?
A. PCI is per Capita Income. It is calculated by dividing the National Income of the country by population.
- It is used to compare different countries.
- The World Bank has divided the countries n into rich or low income countries on the basis of per capita income.
Q.7 What are the development goals of the following :
(i) Labourer (ii) Rich farmer
|Category of a Person||Development Goals Aspiration|
|Landless rural labourers||More days of work
Social and economic
Low price food grains
|Rich farmer||Cheap labour
Higher price for their
Cheap inputs like seeds machinery, etc.
High price for their products.
Q.8 What may be development for one may not be development for the other.’ Explain by giving examples/[CBSE Sept .2012,2015]
With the help of an example show two groups who may have different notions of development[CBSE Sept.2010]
A. It is true development for one may not be development for the other.
(i) More wages means development for a worker but it can go against the entrepreneur.
(ii) A rich farmer or trader wants to sell food grains at a higher price but a poor workers wants to purchase it for low prices.
(iii) Construction of a dam means more and cheap power but people, who will lose their habitat will demonstrate.
(iv) To get more electricity, the industrialists may want more dams. But this may submerge the agricultural land, and disrupt the lives of the people.
Q.9 What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development [CBSE .Sept.2010]
A. National development is a comprehensive term which includes improvement in living standard of the people, increase in per capita income, providing social amenities like education, medical care, social services, etc to to the citizens of the country.
(i) Under national development, a country uses its resources in a fair and just way.
(ii) Under this only those programmes and policies are implemented which would benefit a large number of people.
(iii) Under national development, countries focus more on social infrastructure which includes education, health and other social services.
Q.10 What is the significance of Human Development Index[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) HDI is used to measure level of development of a country.
(ii) It has been published by UNDP and according to it countries have been ranked.
(iii) It is a comprehensive approach which covers all the major aspects of life.
(iv) Apart from income, education, health staus, life expectancy, etc. are considered for life expectancy economic development of a nation.
Q.11 ‘Human development is the essence of social development ‘.Explain.
A.(i) Human development focuses on the people.
(ii) It is concerned with the well- being of the people, their needs, choices and aspirations. All these help in building a right kind of society.
(iii) It is all about the enlarging or widening the choices for the people. It is building of human capabilities, such as to lead a long and a healthy life, to have education, information and knowledge, to have opportunities of livelihood, etc.
(iv) Human development focuses on the expansion of basic choices.
Q.12 ‘Average Income is an important criterion for development.”Explain
A.(i) Average income gives us an idea what an average person is likely to get out of the total national income.
(ii) Average income is used to classify the countries into rich, poor or developing nations.
(iii) Average income is used to make economic policies.
Q.13 Besides income what can be the other attribute to compare economic development?[CBSE 2013,14]
A. (1) Of course for comparing economic development of countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all things that human beings need. That is why, the World Bank uses Per Capita Income to compare economic development.
(2) Apart from income, educational levels of the people and their health status are considered as measures to compare economic development of a nation.
(i) Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): This indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1,000 live children born in that particular year.
(ii) Literacy Rate: This measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 years and above age group.
(iii) Net Attendance Ratio: This is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
(iv) Life Expectancy at Birth: It denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
Q.14 What is infant mortality rate? Suggest two measures to keep the infant mortality rate low[CBSE 2009,2013,14]
What is the meaning of ‘Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)? Give two main reasons for low IMR in Kerala[CBSE 2010.
A.(1) The number of children that die before the age of one year per 1000 children born alive in a particular year is called infant Mortality Rate.
(2) Measures to keep infant Mortality Rate low:
(i) Provision of basic health.
(ii) Provision of proper educational facility.
(iii) Proper functioning of Public Distribution System.
Long Answer Type Questions (4/5 Mark each)
Q.1 Distinguish between developed and underdeveloped countries.
|Developed Countries||Underdeveloped Countries|
|(i)These countries have high per capita income.
(ii) The standard of living of the people is high.
(iii) For example, USA UK , Japan, etc.
|(i)These countries have low per capita income.
(ii) The standard of living of the people is low.
(iii) For example, Nepal, Pakistan etc.
Q.2 What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Explain the meaning of the term ‘Rich Countries and ‘Low Income Countries according to the World Development Report. What is India’s position in this respect?[CBSE 2013]
A. The World Development Report, 2012, brought out by the World Bank has given the following criteria in classifying countries:
(i) Rich or High Income countries: Countries with the per capita income of US $ 12,476 per annum and above in 2016, are called rich countries.
(ii) Poor or Low income countries: The countries with the per capita income of US $ 1,025 or less, are called low income countries.
India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 20162 was just $ 1340.4 per annum. The rich countries, excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries are generally called the developed countries.
(i) It covers only the economic aspect ignoring peace, health, environment, education, longevity, etc.
(ii) The method does not provide us the distribution of income.
Q.3 Distinguish between human and economic development.
|Human Development||Economic Development|
|(i) It is broader aspect of development as it includes monetary as includes monetary as well as the non-monetary aspects.
(ii) It is the process of both quantitative and qualitative growth.
(iii) Human development is the end or the final goal of all developments.
|(i)It is a narrow concept as it includes only the monetary aspects.
(ii) It includes only the quantitative growth.
(iii) It is a mean to achieve human development.
Q.4 What contributes to the human development?
A. There are many economic as well as non-economic factors which contribute to the human development.
(i) Living a long and a healthy life.
(ii) To have education, information and knowledge.
(iii) Enjoying a decent standard of living.
(iv) Enjoying basic fundamental rights like freedom, security, education, etc.
(v) To have equality and enjoyment of human rights.
Q.5 ‘Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well. Explain [CBSE 2010(O) ,Sept ,2013]
A.(i) Money or material things that one can buy with it one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of our life also depends upon non-material things like equal treatment, freedom, security, respect of other, etc.
(ii) Money cannot buy us a pollution free environment, unadulterated medicines, peace, etc.
(iii) There are many facilities like schools, colleges, parks, hospitals which an individual cannot afford. All these are to be provided by the government/society.
(iv) Money possessed by an individual even can not provide us a type of government which take decision for the welfare of the common people.
Q.6 What are the limitations of the per capita income criteria of development? [CBSE 2014]
What is Per Capita Income? Can it be regarded as the sole indicator of economic development of a country? Give four valid arguments to support your answer.[CBSE 2012]
A.(i) Per capita income is the average income of a country.
(ii) Per capita income criteria takes into account only the economic aspect of life and ignores the social, aspect of life.
(iii) Per capita income criteria ignores education, health, life expectancy, sanitation etc.
(iv) Per capita income criteria also ignores non-material things like peace, pollution free environment, democracy, etc.
(v) Though Punjab has higher per capita income as compared to Kerala but it has been ranked lower on Human been ranked lower on Human Development Index because it is far behind than Kerala in literacy rate and has higher infant mortality rate than Kerala.
Q.1 Development of a country can generally be determined by:
(i) Its per capita income.
(ii) Its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
A.(iv) all the above
Q.2 Which of the following neighbouring countries of india has better performance in terms of human development than india ?
(i) Bangladesh (ii) Sri Lanka
(iii) Nepal (iv) Pakistan
A.(ii) Sri Lanka
Q.3 Assume there are four families in a country.The average per capita income of these families is rupee 5000.if the income of three families is rupee 4000.rupee 7000 and rupee 3000 respectively ,what is the income of the fourth family ?
(i) rupee 7500 (ii) rupee 3000
(iii) rupee 2000 (iv) rupee 6000
A.Total income of four
Total income of three families
Income of the fourth family
Q.4 What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries ?What are the limitations of this criterion, if any ?
A.Refer to Q .No.2 Long Answer Type Questions.
Q.5 In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the world Bank?[CBSE Sept.2011,2012,14]
|(i)UNDP has taken education, health, life expectancy and other important componets as the base for development.
(ii) It is a broad concept as it takes into account all the important components of human development.
(iii) UNDP has ranked the different components of development. For example, India has been awarded 130 rank (Report 2015)
|(i)World Bank has taken per capita income as the base for economic development.
(ii) It is a narrow concept as it takes into account only the income as the base.
(iii) World Bank has divided the countries into low, upper and high income countries (Report 2015)India comes under Lower middle-income group.
Q.5 Why do we use average ? Are there any limitations to their use ? Illustrate with your own examples related to the development .
|COMPARISON OF TWO COUNTRIES|
|Country||Monthly income of citizens in 2007 (in rupee)|
A.Averages are used to compare different countries ,states or regions.Averages have many limitations.
1.These don’t give us the true picture regarding the distribution of income.
2.Averages don’t give us any information regarding the non-materalistic goods and services.
Limitations of average income:
While ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.
For example ,let us consider two countries –A and B .For the sake of simplicity ,we have assumed that they have only five citizens each Based on the data given in the table.Let us calculate the average income for both the countries.
Will you the equally happy to live in both these countries ? Are both equally developed ? Perhaps, some of us may like to live in country B if we have assured of being its fifth citizen, but if it is a lottery that decides our citizenship number, then perhaps, most of us will prefer to live in country A.This is because even though both the countries have an identical average income, country A is preferred because it has more equal distribution.In this country, people are neither very rich nor extremely poor while ,most of the citizens in country B are poor, and one person is extremely rich.
Hence ,while the average income is useful for the comparisons, it does not tell us how this income is distributed among the people.
Q.7 Kerala with a lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab.Hence ,the per capita income is not a useful criterion at all, and should not be used to compare states .Do you agree ?Discuss.
A.The per capita income is one of the most important components of human development .No country of the world can ignore this.Increasing national income and the per capita income are the two main goals of all the developing as well as developed countries .So we cannot ignore the per capita income.
Q.8 Find out the present sources of energy used by people in India.What could be the possibilities fifty years from now?
A.Coal is the main source of energy.
Reserves of coal are limited.So india can face an energy crisis in the future.
Q.9 Why is the Issue of sustainability important for development ?[CBSE Sept.2011,2012,2018(o)]
A.(i) It cares for the needs of the future generations.
(ii) It promotes an efficient use of natural resources.
(iii) It lays emphasis on quality life.
(iv) It provides long-term solution.
Q.10 “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.”How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development ? Discuss.
A.(i) Groundwater is a renewable resources but its overuse in some regions is lowering the water table.
(ii) Use of coal for production of energy leads to development, but its overuse degrades the environment.
(iii) Industrialisation leads to development ,but it also degrades the environment.
Q.11 List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
A.(i) Construction of dams.
(iii) Burning of coal and mineral oil
(iv) Use of fertilizers and pesticides
(v) Soil erosion
Q.12 The table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India.It is based on a survey of various states in the country for the year 2005-06.Look at the table, and answer the following questions:
(i)Based on the above data, compare the nutritional level of the people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of the people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough it is argued that there is enough food in the country ?Describe in your own words.
A.(i) The nutritional level of the people of Kerala is quite higher than the people-both males and females of Madhya Pradesh .In Kerala, the ratio of the undernourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) There is enough food in the country but even then 40 per cent of the people in the country are undernourished because of the following reasons:
- A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
- Wastage of food grains in godowns is another important factor responsible for scarcity of food grains.
- There is a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country.So many people remain backward and poor, and so, they are unable to get nutritious food.
- In most of the states ,the Public Distribution System(PDS) does not function properly ,and the poor people cannot get cheap food items.so they remain undernourished.
Higher Order Thinking Skills(Hots)Questions
Q.1 Study the given data carefully ,and answer the following questions:Some Comparative Data on Kerala ,Maharashtra and Bihar:
Rate Per 1000
|Literacy rate(%)||Net Attendance Ratio for class
|Per Capita Income(in ruppe)|
1.Which state has the highest per capita income ?
2.Which state has the lowest per capita income?
3.Which state has the highest literacy rate ?
4.Which state has the highest infant mortality rate ? Give one reason.[CBSE Sept .2010,2011]
A.1.Maharashtra :Rupee 1,17,091 2.Bihar:Rupee 31,199
3.Kerala:94% 4.Bihar:Because the state lacks health facilities.
Q.2 Study the given table carefully, and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs.For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table.
|EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF RURAL|
|POPULATION OF UTTAR PRADESH|
|Literacy rate of population
Literacy rate for children in the age group,10-14 years
Percentage of rural children in the groups,10-14 attending school
- The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old is 1 for rural males and 2 for rural females. However,it is not just that these many adults could not attend school, but that there are 3 who are currently not in school.
- It is clear from the table that 4 of the rural girls and 5 of the rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, illiteracy among children in the age. group 10-14 is as high as 6 for rural females, and 7 for the rural males.
- This high level of illiteracy among 8 age group, even after more than 60 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also, we are nowhere near realization of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by the year 1960.
(b) 4-69% ;5-36% ;6-61%;7-32%
Q.3 Compare India and Sri Lanka on the basis of any three indicators of the Human Development Index for 2004.[CBSE 2009(O),Sept .2012]
A.(1) Per capita income:The per capita income of Sri Lanka is higher than that of india. The per capita income of india is about $ 5150 where as it is around $ 9250 for Sri Lanka.
(2)Life expectancy at birth:Life expectancy at birth in Sri Lanka is also higher as compared to india. In Sri Lanka, the life expectancy is around 74.3 whereas in india it is about 66.4.
(3) Literacy rate:Literacy rate in Sri Lanka, is also higher than india. It is 9.12 in Sri Lanka whereas it is 62.8 in india.
Q.4 Why are the countries of the Middle East not called ‘developed in-spite of high per capita income [CBSE Sept .2010]
A.(i) These are small countries
(ii) The gap between rich and poor is very high.
(iii) Though per capita income in Middle East countries is very high but there is unequal distribution of wealth.
(iv) These countries have high per capita income due to oil production.So they have only one major source of income.
(v) The world Development Report brought out by the World Bank has excluded these countries from the list of developed countries.
Q.5 Highlight any three advantages of public Facilities.[CBSE Sept.2010]
A.(i) Public facilities is the cheapest way to provide basic services collectively.
(ii) Most of the poor people survive only because of public facilities.
(iii) There are many services like police, education, transportation ,etc.Which become affordable only if they are part of public facilities.
Q.6 Why are public facilities needed for the development of the country ?Explain four public facilities [CBSE Sept.2010,2012]
A.Public facilities play very important role in the development of a country as these include education, health, transportation, banking which are the base for any kind of development.
(i) Education: Education is the most important public facility which is required both by the rich as well as the poor.
(ii) Public Distribution System(PDS):Public distribution system is another important facility which plays an important role in providing food security to the people.
(iii) Transportation: Many transport facilities like railway, airways, waterways, banking become affordable only if they are provided collectively.
Q.7 Explain common, different and conflicting goals by giving appropriate examples .[CBSE 2012]
A.Development goals may be common, different or conflicting.
(i) Common goals: There are some needs which are common to all like income, freedom, equality, security, respect, friendship, etc.
(ii) Different goals: Development or progress does not mean the same thing for every individual.Each individual has his own idea of development.For example, development for a farmer might be better irrigation facilities for an unemployed youth it may mean better employment opportunities, etc.
(iii) Conflicting goals:What may be development for some, may become destruction for some others.may become destruction for some others. For example, industrialists may want dams for electricity but such dams would displace the natives of the region.
Q.8 Mention any four aspects of comparison notions of development between different countries [CBSE 2010,14]
Explain three attributes for comparing nations development between different countries.[CBSE 2010]
What are the two basic criteria used for comparing an underdeveloped country with developed once[CBSE 2010]
Give examples to prove that there are other important development goals than income[CBSE 2012]
A.Development of a country can generally be determined by:per capita income; average literacy level; and health status of its people.
(i) Per Capita Income means average income generated by each person in a given group of people.Its limitations is that it does not show the disparities among the people o the group.
(ii) Amount of literacy achieved is also a measure of development.Literacy rate measures the proportion.Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.The more the people are educated ,the more developed the group is.
(iii) Health indicators are infant Mortality Rate,Birth Rate, etc, Lower the amount of infant Mortality Rate, higher is the rate of people being healthy.
(iv) Net Attendance Ratio is also the indicator of economic development of a nation.It is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
(v) Life Expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.Higher the life expectancy at birth, higher is considered the development of a nation.
Q.9 How is BMI used to determine the undernourishment of a person ?Explain.[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index or BMI.
(ii) In order to calculate ,first of all the weight of the person in kg is taken.Then ,the height in metres is measured.The ,the height in metres is measured.The weight is divided by the square of the height.
(iii) If this figure is less than 18.5 ,then the person would be considered under-nourished.However ,if this BMI is more than 25 ,then a person is overweight.
Q.10 What is the criterion to determine if adults are undernourished ?[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) The criterion to determine if adults are undernourished is Body Mass Index, popularly known as BMI.
(ii) In order to calculate it,first the weight of the person in Kg is taken.Then ,we take height in metres.The weight is divded by the square of the height.
(iii)If this figure is less than 18.5 ,then the person would be considered under-nourished.However ,if this BMI is more than 25 ,then a person is overweight.
Q.11 What is meant by ‘Overusing a Resource’?Explain with examples .[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) ‘Overusing a Resource ‘means more uses of the resources than it replenished by the nature.’
(ii) Let us consider groundwater. It is an example of renewable resources.These resources are replenished by nature.However even these replenished by nature. However, even these resources may be overused.In the case of groundwater, if we use more than what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resource.
(iii) This is what Indian states have done.For examples, farmers of Punjab have overused the groundwater.This has lead to lowering of the water table.
Q.12 Explain the importance of sustainable development with reference to groundwater by giving examples/[CBSE 2013]
What is meant by sustainable development ? Explain it by taking the case study of water[CBSE 2011,14]
A.(i) Sustainable development is the development of a country or world not only at present, but the development which is to be continued and maintained for future generations.
(ii)For example, groundwater is a natural resource which is replenished by nature.People of a particular generations must use water in such a way that people of future generation may also be able to use groundwater,People should not overuse and degrade the quality of water so that water is exhausted or if it remains.It is contaminated to such an extent that it becomes unusable for people of future generations.
Q.13Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.”Justify the statement.[CBSE 2012,14,2015]
A.(i) Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries.This issue is no longer a regional or national issue.
(ii) Our future is linked together.Sustainability of development is essential for all the mankind and it is our common responsibility to save the environment.
(iii) These days it is a matter of discussion among different countries of the world.
(iv) Global warming ,acid rain, etc, are not to be controlled by one nation.It is a global matter of thinking and finding the solutions.
Q.14 Explain the term ‘Development’.How is it linked with sustainability ?Explain with examples [CBSE 2012,14]
A.(i) Development is a process which has notion of going further up and improving the quality of life.
(ii) It is linked to sustainability since it has to be maintained for future generations.
(iii) Resources need to be used wisely so that they can be replenished.
(iv) Overuse of resources exhaust them. For example, petroleum.
(v) If development is not sustainable ,it will give rise to environmental degradation and become a global problem.
Q.15 ‘The development goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life’Explain Mention any two goals of a student .
‘For development people look at a mix of goals’.Support the statement with suitable examples.[CBSE Sept 2011]
Apart from income ,which other six things people look for ?[CBSE 2012]
A. Though income is one of the most important components of development bu there are other important things such as:
(i) People also seek things like equal treatment freedom ,security and respect.
(ii) Women need safe and secure environment to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
(iii) People also need political rights.
(iv) People seek a pollution free environment.
- Better Education
- Pollution free environment.
Q.16 What do you mean by public facilities ? Why are they important ?Name two public facilities available in India ?
- A. Public facilities are the essential facilities for the community at large and are provided by the government.
They are important because there are many services like education, health, transportation etc.,Which have become cheap and affordable if provided collectively.
Public Facilities:Rail transport and government schools.
Q.17 Why is literacy essential for the economic development ? Explain.[CBSE Sept.2010]
A.(i) Illiterate people are easily cheated and exploited by the traders, shopkeepers and employers.
(ii) There is shortage of skilled workers in India, this shortage can be reduced only through literacy.
(iii) Most of the illiterate people are engaged in primary and unorganized sector so their earning is very low.
Q.18 ‘Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that one need’.with reference to the given statement mention any four things which money can not buy for an individual.
(ii) Pollution free environment
(iii) Good health
Q.19 The annual Per Capita Incomes of three countries are given below.Based on the guidelines set by the World Bank Report(2012),Classify these countries as high income, low income or developing.
- Country A:US $ 5000
- Country B:US $ 15580
- Country C:US $ 12280[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) Country A with per Capita Income of US $ 5000 comes under Low Income Countries.
(ii) Country B with Per Capita Income of US $ 15580 lies in the category of High Income Countries.
(iii) Country C with Per Capita Income of US $12280 falls in the category of Developing Countries.
Q.20 Think of any three developmental goals of a boy from a rich urban family.Describe them[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) He may think to get quality education and peruse his studies abroad.
(ii) He may require the availability of vocational education and training.
(iii) He may require capital to start his own business.
Q.21 Apart from salary, what other goals can you have in mind while taking up a new job ? Explain [CBSE 2013]
(ii) Working Environment
(iii) Opportunity to learn
(iv) Pollution from environment.
Q.22 How do the women engage in paid jobs fulfil mix of goals ? Explain .[CBSE 2014]
A.(i) Economic independency: If a women is working, she will get economic independency.
(ii) Equality: As per the law, working women need to be treated equally.
(iii) Respected: A working woman will get respect not only in the family but in the society also.