NCERT Solutions for Mineral and Energy Resources Geography Chapter 5 Class 10
- Mineral: A substance which is found in the earth’s crust and which generally has a definite.
- Mineral ore: Mineral ore is the raw, metal extracted from the earth. It is found mixed with soil and other impurities[CBSE 2008(D)]
- Mining: Mining is an economic activity of extracting minerals from the earth.
- Fossil fuels: These are fuels formed by the decomposition or organism under the earth or the seabed.
- Non-ferrous minerals: Minerals devoid of iron contents are termed as non-ferrous minerals.E.g.Zinc and lead.
- Ferrous minerals: These are the metals which contain iron e.g.iron ore and manganese ore.
- Thermal electricity: The electricity produced by using coal, petroleum or splitting atomic minerals in controlled condition.
- Hydroelectricity: The electricity generated from water.
- Conventional resources: These are non-renewable sources of energy e.g, coal.
- Non-conventional resources: These are renewable sources of energy .e.g, solar energy.
- Nuclear energy: It is the energy which is obtained by splitting the atom, under controlled conditions. As the power is derived by splitting the nucleus of an atom, It is known as the nuclear energy.
- Veins and lodes: In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called the Veins and the larger ones are called the Lodes.
- Magnetite: This is the best quality of iron ore and contain about 72% iron. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.
- Hematite: It is most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used. It contains about 50% to 60% of pure iron.
- Energy: The resources which are used for generating energy are known as energy resources. Coal petroleum, uranium, etc.are some of the important energy resources.
- Geologist: A scientist who study origin and structure of earth.
Question Bank for Mineral and Energy Resources Geography Chapter 5
Very Short Answer Type Question(1 Mark each)
Q.1 Define minerals [CBSE 2018,11]
A. Homogenous, naturally occurring substances with a definable internal structure are known as minerals.Coal iron ore,petroleum,marble etc.
Q.2 Why do minerals have wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density? [CBSE 2016(D)]
A. This is because minerals are formed under different physical and chemical conditions.
Q.3 Mention any two properties which are used by the geologists to classify minerals.
A. Colour, hardness, luster and density.
Q.4 What are ferrous minerals [CBSE 2011]
A. The minerals which contain iron are known as ferrous minerals. For example, nickel, manganese, cobalt etc.
Q.5 What are non-ferrous minerals?
A. The minerals which do not contain ironore. For example, copper, lead, tin,e.t.c
Q.6 List any two energy minerals.
A. Coal and petroleum.
Q.7 What is an ore? Name any two iron ores? [CBSE 2014]
A. A naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be extracted profitably. For example, Magnetite and hematite.
Q.8 Name any two carrier rocks of minerals.
A. Igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Q.9 Name any two minerals which are obtained from veins and lodes[CBSE 2012]
A. Zinc, copper, tin, lead, etc.
Q.10 Name the rocks in which coal is formed.
A. Sedimentary rocks.
Q.11 Name some minerals which have been formed as a result of evaporation.
A. Gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt.
Q.12 Name a mineral which is formed due to decomposition of rocks?
Q.13 What are placer deposits[CBSE 2015]
A. The alluvial deposits: containing minerals that occur in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
Q.14 List any two minerals which are obtained from; placer deposits’.
A. Gold, silver, tin and platinum.
Q.15 ‘Different regions of India contain different minerals’.Give reasons.
A. This is because of the difference in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation.
Q.16 Which is the finest iron ore?
Which is the best variety of iron ore? [CBSE 2011]
A. Magnetite-70% iron.
Q.17 State any one economic importance of magnetite.
A. It is the basic input in electrical industry.
Q.18Name the belts in which the following iron ore mines are located.
A.(i) Bailadila-Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt
(ii) Singbhum-Odisha-Jharkhand belt.
Q.19 Name an iron ore mine which is 100% export unit.
A. The Kudermukh mines.
Q.20 Name any two ports through which iron ore is exported.
Q.21 Name any two countries which import iron ore from India.
A. Japan and South Korea.
Q.22 Which state is the largest producer of manganese?
Q.23 Why is copper used in electrical and electronic industry? Give two reasons.
A.(i) It is good conductor of heat and electricity.
(ii) It is malleable and ductile.
Q.24 Name the mineral for which the Balaghat mines of Madhya Pradesh are famous.
Q.25 Name any two important copper mines of India.
A.(i) Balaghat mines-Madhya Pradesh
(ii) Khetri mines-Rajasthan
Q.26 Name a metal which is made up of a series of plates of leaves.
Q.27 Mention any two mica belts of India.
A.(i) Koderma Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand
(ii) Nellore-Andhra Pradesh
Q.28 Name any two states which are the leading producers of mica.
A. Jharkhand and Rajasthan
Q.29 Name the mineral which is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.
Q.30 Name a mineral which is used as the basic raw material for the cement industry.
Q 31. How can energy resources be classified?
A. Conventional and non-conventional.
Q.32 Name any two most important energy resources or rural India.
A. Firewood and cattle dung cake.
Q.33 Which is the most important energy resource in India?
Q34. Which is the low-quality coal? Name the region where it is produced. Also, mention the purpose for which the coal is used.
A. Lignite is the poor quality coal. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu Is the main producer of lignite. The coal is used for the production of electricity.
Q.35. Which variety of coal one expect to find in swamps?
Q.36. Mention some material that can be used to produce biogas.
A. Animal dung, poultry waste, Vegetable wastes, waste paper and cotton clothes, plant wastes (grass, husk, leaves, skins weeds), human excreta, bird’s excretas etc
Q.37. What are the twin benefits of the ‘Gobar gas plants’ to the farmer? [CBSE 2016(O)]
A.(i) They provide clean energy.
(ii) They improve the quality of manure.
Q.38. Name any two projects which have been set in India to harness geothermal energy.
A. (i) Parvati Valley-Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh)
(ii) Puga Valley –Ladakh(Jammu & Kashmir.
Q.39 Where is an experimental geothermal energy project located in India?
A. Puga Valley-Ladakh
Q.40. Which are the twin planks of sustainable energy?
A. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy resources.
Q.41. How is bauxite ore formed?
A. Bauxite ore is formed through the decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.
Q.42 Name any two major iron ore belts producing haematite.
A. (i) Odisha-Jharkhand belt
(ii) Durg-Baster-Chandrapur belt.
Q.43 Name any two minerals derived from ocean waters.
A. (i) Common salt
Q.44 Mention any two ferrous minerals of India. Also, mention the states which lead in the production of minerals mentioned by you.
A.(i) Iron ore-Karnataka
Q.45 Name any four non-ferrous minerals of India.
A. (i) Copper (ii)Zinc
Q.46 Name the states in which the following mines are located:
(i) Singhbhum copper mine.
(ii) Khetri copper mine
(iii) Nellore mica belt
(iv) Kudermukh iron ore mine.
A. (i) Singhbhum copper mine-Jharkhand
(ii) Khetri –Rajasthan
(iii) Nellore-Andhra Pradesh
Q.47 Name the ore of aluminium which state is the leading producer of aluminium ore?
A. Aluminium is obtained from bauxite. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing in India with 45% of the country’s total production.
Q.48 What are conventional resources of energy? [CBSE 2015]
A. Conventional power resources are those which are exhaustible, once used up these cannot be replaced e.g coal and petroleum etc.
Q.49 How do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks[CBSE 2016(D)]
A. Veins and lodes.
Q.50 How is iron-ore transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru? [CBSE 2016(F)]
A.Iron-ore transported as slurry through pipelines.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Mark each)
Q.1 Categories the following minerals as ferrous of non-ferrous minerals-cobalt, bauxite, lead.
A. Ferrous –Cobalt
Q.2 Identify the source of the following minerals.
(a) Coal (b) Magnesium (c) Copper
A. (a) Coal- Sedimentary rocks
(b) Magnesium-Ocean water
(c) Copper –igneous or metamorphic
Q.3 What is mine?How a mineral deposit/reserve turn into a mine?
A.It is an excavation in the earth from which ore or minerals can be extracted. A mineral
Q.4 How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks? [CBSE March 2011,2015(O)]
A.(i) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layer.
(ii) They have been forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure.
(iii) Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure.
(iv) Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash, salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in arid regions.
Q.5 How are minerals formed in alluvial deposits? Name any four minerals formed in alluvial deposits.
A.Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits and generally, contain minerals, which are not corroded by water, Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.
Q.6 ‘India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral mineral resources.’ Mention any four minerals which are found in abundance in India. Also mention any four minerals which are deficient in India.
A.(i) Minerals which are abundant in India: Mica, Iron, manganese, titanium, bauxite and coal.
(ii) Minerals which are deficient in India: Copper, lead, zinc and gold.
Q.7 Which are the two most important varieties of iron ore?
A. (i)Magnetite-This is the best quality of iron ore, and contain about 72% iron. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.
(ii) Hamatite: It is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used.It contains about 60% to 70% of pure iron.
Q.8 Name one important iron ore mine of the following states:
(i) Odisha (ii) Jharkhand
(iii) Chhattisgarh (iv) Karnataka
A.(i) Odisha -Mayurbhanj
(iii) Chhattisgarh -Bailadila
Q.9 What is the utility of manganese? Describe its distribution[CBSE 1998,1999,2004,2013(D)]
Which state is the largest producer of manganese in India? Mention any four uses of manganese[CBSE 2014]
A.It is an important mineral which is used for making iron and steel and it acts as a basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy. It is also used for the manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticide, paints, batteries, etc.
Major manganese producing state are:
- Largest producer-Odisha
- Madhya Pradesh
Q.10 Explain the formation of bauxite and name the metal obtained from it.[CBSE 2014]
A.(i) Bauxite is formed by the intense weathering of surface rocks.
(ii) Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.
(iii) Aluminium is extracted from Bauxite.
Q.11 What are the uses of copper? Mention any two leading copper-producing states of India.
Mention any three properties of copper.
A.(i) Copper is malleable and ductile. So it is used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
(ii) It is also used in making cooking utensils radiators and refrigerators.
(iii) Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the leading copper-producing states of India.
Q.12 List any three uses of Aluminium.
A.(i) It is used for making pots and pans because it is good conductors of heat.
(ii) Aluminium also conducts electricity well and is used to make electrical wires.Aluminium is used to make cans for various beverages and other liquids.
(iii) It can be pressed into a thin foil so it is used both commercially and in homes for such purposes as wrapping foods for storage.
(iv) Because aluminium is light and strong, it is widely used in aeroplanes and spacecraft. It can be made even stronger by mixing it with other metals to form some important alloys.
Q.13 What are the major properties of mica? Mention any three[CBSE 2014 (O)]
Name a non-metallic mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. Give its characteristics, uses and distribution.[CBSE 2014]
A.(i) It is made up of a series of plates or leaves.
(ii) It can be converted into thin sheets.
(iii) It can be excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor insulating properties and high resistance. Due to all these properties, it is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric industries.
Q.14 How can you classify the energy resources? Give at least four examples of each[CBSE 2014(O)]
A. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional.
(i) Conventional sources: Firewood, cattle, dung cake, coal, petroleum and natural gas.
(ii) Non-conventional sources: Solar, wind tidal geothermal, biogas.
Q.15 Explain the importance of coal as energy resources.
A.(i) Coal is the main source of energy in India.
(ii) It is used for power generation ,to supply energy to the industry as well as for domestic needs.
(iii) It is a basic input in the Iron and Steel industry.
(iv) It is also used in Cement industry.
Q.16 Explain the formation of Petroleum in India.
A. Most of the occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the Tertiary age. In region of the folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where the oil is trapped in the crest of the up fold. The oil-bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by the intervening non-porous layers. Petroleum is also found in the fault traps between the porous and the non-porous rocks. Gas being lighter usually occurs above the oil.
Q.17 Name clean energy resources which are found in association with or without petroleum.
Name any four regions which are rich in the energy resources named by you.
(ii) Mumbai High
(iii) Gulf of Cambay
(iv) Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Q.18 What are veins and lodes? Name any four minerals obtained from the veins and lodes.
A. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes.
Tin, copper, zinc and lead are obtained from veins and lodes.
Q.19 Distinguish between magnetite and haematite.
|(i)It is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 72 per cent.
(ii) It is the most important input in the electrical industry.
|(i)It has slightly lower iron content than magnetite i.e 50-60 per cent.
(ii)It is the most important input in the iron industry.
Q.20 Explain the formation of coal. Also, mention the factors which decide the variety of coal [CBSE March 2011]
A. Coal is formed due to the decomposition of organic matter like plants and vegetation buried under the earth’s crust, millions of years ago.
The variety of coal depends up on the degrees of compression and depth, and the time of burial.
Q.21 What is gobar gas or biogas? State its three uses. [CBSE 2003]
A.It is an energy gas which is produced from organic waste such as farm waste, shrubs, animal and human waste.
(i) It is a non-conventional source of energy.
(ii) It has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, cow dung, coal and charcoal.
(iii) It does not cause any pollution.
Q.22 What is solar energy? What is its importance.[CBSE 2003]
Why is solar energy fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas of India? Explain [CBSE 2014(F)]
How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your opinion.[CBSE 2015(O)]
A. The energy obtained from the sun is called solar energy.
(i) Solar energy is free of cost.
(ii) It does not cause any pollution
(iii) It is a non-conventional source of energy.
(iv) It will reduce the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes.
Q.23 Mention any four factors which determine the economic viability of a reserve.[CBSE 2014(F)]
A.(i) Concentration of mineral in the ore.
(ii) The ease of extraction
(iii) Closeness to the market.
Q.24 What are energy resources? Give examples.
A. The resources which are used for generating energy are known resources. Coal petroleum, uranium, etc, are some of the important energy resources.
Q.25 Explain any three factors affecting the economic viability of a reserve of mineral[CBSE 2014(F)]
State any three factors affecting the economic viability of mineral reserves. [CBSE 2008(F)]
A.(i) Sufficient mineral content: The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable.
(ii) Technically feasibility: Viability of a reserve also depends upon the availability of technology. For example there are vast reserves of thorium in India but we don’t possess technology to extract that mineral from the earth.
(iii) Cost of extraction :The cost of extraction of a mineral from its ore is the most important factor affecting the economic viability of a reserve of mineral.
Q.26 What are the two main ways of generating electricity? How are they different from each other? Explain. [CBSE 2014(O)]
A. Hydroelectricity and thermal power.
|(i)It is generated by fast-flowing water.
(ii) It is renewable resources.
|(i)It is generated by using coal, petrol and natural gas.
(ii) It is non-renewable resources.
Long Answer Type Questions(4/5 Marks each)
Q.1 Explain the various forms in which minerals occur,
Define mineral. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? [CBSE 2011]
Explain any three types of formations in which minerals occur.[CBSE 2012]
A. The mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definite internal structure.
(i) Minerals in igneous and metamorphic rocks: In igneous and metamorphic rocks the minerals are found in crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called as loders. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are formed upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
(ii) Minerals in decomposed rocks: Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
(iii) Minerals in alluvial deposits: Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’,and generally contain minerals, which are not corroded by water, Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.
(iv) Minerals in sedimentary rocks: In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal stratas. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure.
(v)Minerals in arid region: Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash, salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in arid regions.
Q.2 ‘Minerals in India are unevenly distributed’.Explain.[CBSE March 2011]
A.(i) Minerals in Deccan:The Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
(ii) Minerals In the western and eastern region of India: Sedimentary rocks of the western and eastern parts of India, i.e Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
(iii) Minerals in Rajasthan: Rajasthan with the rock system of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
(iv) Minerals in north India:The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals. These variations exist largely because of the differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Q.3 Explain the classification of minerals. [CBSE 2015]
Explain the classification of minerals into metals and non-metals giving examples of each.
A.1. Metallic minerals: We get metals from these minerals.Ores of iron, copper, gold, silver, lead, aluminium, tin, etc.are important examples of metallic minerals. Metallic minerals can further be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous.
(i) Ferrous minerals: The minerals which contain iron ore are known as ferrous minerals, Iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc. are some of the important ferrous minerals.
(ii) Non-ferrous Minerals: Minerals containing metals other than iron ore are known as non-ferrous minerals. Gold, silver, platinum, etc. are called non-ferrous minerals.
(iii) Precious minerals: The minerals which have very high economic value are known as precious minerals for example gold, silver, platinum, etc.
(2) Non-Metallic Minerals: These are those minerals which do not contain metals which do not contain metals. Coal, petroleum, mica, manganese, etc.are some important non0metallic minerals. Mineral oil and coal are non-metallic minerals and are also called energy minerals. There is deficiency of copper, lead, zinc, and gold.
3.Energy minerals: The minerals which provide energy or power are known as energy minerals. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are the most important energy minerals.
Q.4 Explain the distribution of iron ore in India.
Name the iron-ore mines of Karnataka located in Western Ghats. List any two features of these mines [CBSE 2014]
A.(i) Odisha –Jharkhand belt: This belt is the leading, producer of iron ore in India. In Odisha, high grade haematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts. Palamau and Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand are the important producers of haematite iron ore.
(ii) Durh-Bastar-Chandarpur– The belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The belt is known for high grade haematite which is found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. The range of hills consist of 14 deposits of super high grade haematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making. It is exported to Japan and South Korea via the Vishakhapatnam port.
(iii) Ballary-Chitradurga Chikmanglur Tumkur: The belt is in Karnataka. It has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world. The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.
(iv) Maharashtra –Goa belt: This belt includes the state of Goa and the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Through the ores are not of very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through the Marmagao port.
Q.5 Explain the distribution of copper in India.
A.(i) Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of copper in India. The state has rich reserves in Balaghat district which produces about 52% of India’s which produces about 52% of India’s copper. Kherlibazar-Bargaon area of Betal district also has good reserves of copper.
Q.5 Explain the distribution of copper in India.
A.(i) Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of copper in India. The state has rich reserves in Balaghat district which produces about 52% of India’s copper. Kherlibaza Bargaon area of Betal district also has good reserves of copper.
(ii) Rajasthan: Most of the copper reserves of Rajasthan are found along the Aravali range. The khetri –Singhana belt in Jhunjhunu district is the most important copper producing area. The Kho-Dariba and Dilwara-Kirovali region is another important area.
Q.6 Mention any four properties of mica which makes it the most indispensable mineral used in electric and electronic industry. Explain the distribution of mica.
A.(i) Mica has excellent di-electric strength.
(ii) Low power loss.
(iii) Insulating properties.
(iv) Resistance to high voltage.
Production: Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chhota Nagpur plateau. Koerma Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica.
In Rajasthan the major mica producing area is around Ajmer. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country.
Q.7 What are the uses of limestone ?Mention any four states which are the leading producers of limestone.
State any two uses of limestone and name any two states which are the major producers of limestone[CBSE 2014]
A.(i) It is the basic raw material for the cement industry.
(ii) It is used by chemical, iron and steel industry.
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat are the major producers of limestone.
Q.8 There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development’.Justify the statement by giving at least three reasons.
Why is there a need to conserve minerals[CBSE March 2011,2012(O),2013(O),2014(D)(F) ,2015(D),2016(O)]
A.(i) Insignificant Fraction: The total volume of workable mineral deposited is an insignificant fraction, i.e. one per cent of the earth ‘s crust.
(ii) Slow rate of Formation:We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption to the present rates of consumption. Mineral resources are, therefore, finite and non-renewable.
(iii) Increasing Costs: Rich mineral deposits are our country’s extremely valuable but short-lived possessions. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with the decrease in quality.
(iv) Impact on environment: Overuse of minerals especially the non-renewable minerals especially the non-renewable minerals can lead to environmental pollution.
(v)Future generations: While using our mineral resources we have to keep in mind the need of future generations.
Q.9 What efforts are required to use mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner? Explain in three points?
A.(i) Recycling: Recycling is an important aspect of minerals. The most recycled items are containers, aluminium cans .coins etc.
(ii) Using substitutes: As minerals are non-substitutes or alternative resources is the need of the hour.
(iii )Resource planning: Resource planning is another important aspect. Resource should be used in such a way that future generations may not face problems. Priorities need to be fixed in advance so that resources can be used accordingly.
(iv) Technology:Important technology needs to be improved to avoid wastage during different processes of extracting minerals from the ores.
Q.10 Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? What are its three major forms ? Write main features of each form,[CBSE 2008,2014(O),2015(O)]
What are the four types of coal ? Write one main characteristic of each.[CBSE 2006 Comptt.,March 2011]
(i) Anthracite : It is the best quality and contain more than 80% of quality carbon.
(ii) Bituminous:It is lower grade and is known as brown coal.
(iii) Lignite:It is lower grade and is known as brown coal..
(iv) Peat: It is low quality so it burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat.
Q.11 Compare the Gondwana coalfields with the Tertiary coalfields.
In which two main geological ages does coal occur in rock series in India? Mention any two features of coal of each age [CBSE 2014]
Describe about Gondwana and Tertiary coals in India.
|Gondwana Coal fields||Tertiary Coalfields|
|(i)These mines are the main producers of coal in india.
(ii) These are more than 200 million years old.
(iii) These produce good quality of coal.
(iv) Gondwana coal occurs in Damodar Valley, the Godvari, Mahanadi, Son and the Wardha Valley.
|(i)These are the minor producers of coal in India.
(ii)These are only 55 million years old.
(iii) These produce a poor quality of coal.
(iv) Tertiary coal occurs in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya. Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagalgarh.
Q.12 Explain the distribution of mineral oil in india[CBSE March 2011]
Mention any four oilfields of India[CBSE 2011]
A. Assam: Assam is the oldest oil producing of india. Major oilfields of Assam are.
(i) The Digboi: It is oldest oilfield of India.
(ii) The Naharkatiya: It is located in the source of west of Digboi. Rudrasagar, Sibsagar and Moran-Hugrijan are the other major oil fields of Assam.
Oilfields in Western India: This includes the oilfields of Gujarat and the offshore oilfields of Mumbai High.
Gujarat: Gujarat produce about 18% of the total oil production of India. Ankleshwar, Khambhat, Ahmedabad and Kolol fields are the major oilfields of Gujarat.
Offshore oilfields: The largest mineral oil deposits of India are found in the offshore sea near Mumbai High(63%).It is located in the continental shelf off the coast of Maharashtra, about 176cm north –west of Mumbai.
Q.13 “India is rich in mineral resources.” Justify the statement by giving four examples.
Mention any four mineral resources in which India is fairly rich. By which mineral resource does Indian earn foreign exchange? Explain. [CBSE 2014]
A.(i) Nature has richly endowed India with iron ore, both in quantity. It has more than 20% of the world’s iron ore reserves.
(ii) India is the fifth largest producer of manganese in the world.
(iii) India is the world’s largest producer of mica and produce about 60% of the world’s production of mica.
(iv) There are extensive and sufficient deposits of bauxite in the country.
(v) India is one of the largest producer of mica in the world.
(vi) India earn foreign exchange by exporting bauxite, iron-ore, mica etc.
Q.14 In a power deficient country like india, natural gas is precious gift Discuss.
A.(i) It can be used both as a source of energy, and also as an industrial raw material in a petro-chemical industry.
(ii) It takes less time to build a power plant based on natural gas.
(iii) For Indian agriculture, it has a capacity to boost its production through the building of fertilizer plants based on natural gas.
(iv) It is easy to transport through gas pipelines.
(v) It is pollution fee source of energy.
Q.15 Bring out the differences between thermal power and hydel power projects.[CBSE 1999]
|Thermal Power||Hydel Power|
|(i) It is generated by consuming fossil fuels and atomic minerals, coal, natural gas, etc
(ii) It uses exhaustible resources of energy.
(iii) It causes pollution.
(iv) Thermal plants can be setup at any place.
|(i)Hydel power is generated by storing water.
(ii)It uses renewable sources of energy.
(iii) It does not cause any pollution.
(iv)These plants should be near the sources of energy.
Q.16 Describe in detail about coal under the following heads:
(i)Demerits of Indian coal (any two)
(ii)Need for conservation of coal.(two points)[CBSE 2000]
(a) The quality of coal required for producing coke as a essential input in steel industry is deficient.
(b) The Indian coal has high ash content and low calorific value.
(a) Because it is non-renewable resource.
(b) It is the backbone of the industrialization process.
Q.17 Name any four nuclear or atomic power stations in india[CBSE 2005 Comptt.]
A. (i) Tarapur on the border of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
(ii) Rawatbhata kota in Rajasthan.
(iii) Kalapakkam in Tamil Nadu(Madras or Chennai).
(iv) Narora in Uttar Pradesh.
Q.18 ‘Nuclear energy is the hope of future.’Discuss the statement by giving five points.
What minerals are used for generation of nuclear power? Where are they found in India? Why do you think it is bound to play an increasingly important role in India?[CBSE 1995,1997]
that carries it through a power-generating turbine.
In India the Gulf of Kutch, provides ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy. A 900 MW tidal energy. A 900 MW tidal energy power plant is set up here by the National Hydropower Corporation.
Q.19 What is Geothermal energy? Name any two projects which have been set up to harness the geothermal energy[CBSE 2015]
A. Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Geothermal energy because the earth grows progressively hotter with the increase depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperature is fount at a shallow depth. Groundwater in such area absorbs heat from the rocks, and becomes hot. It is so hot that when it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
Two experimental projects have been set up in:
India to harness the geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
Q24. Distinguish between the following:
(i)Metallic and non –metallic minerals.[CBSC2013(D),2014(D) Comptt.]
(ii)Conventional and non – conventional sourses of energy.
[CBSC 2005 Comptt. 2009(F), 2013(D)]
(iii)Anthracite and bituminous coal.
(iv)Natural gas and biogas.
(i)Metallic and non metallic Minerals.
|Metallic minerals||Non- metallic minerals|
||(i)Non –metals are brittle in nature.
(ii)Non –metals are non ductile.
(iii)Non –metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity except graphite.
(iv)Non –metals may be solid, Liquid or gas.
(ii) Conventional and Non –conventional sources of energy:
|Conventional sources of energy|
||(i)These are renewable sources of energy E.g. solar energy, solar energy, wind energy.
(ii)These are going to last long forever .
(iii)These do not cause any pollution.
(iii) Anthracite and Bituminous coal
|Anthracite coal||Bituminous coal|
||(i) It is low quality of coal.
(ii) It causes more pollution.
(iii) It has less calorific value, i.e., it gives less energy.
(iv)Natural gas and Biogas
|Natural gas||Biogas gas|
||(i) Biogas is formed by the decomposition of animal and plant waste with the help of microorganisms of water.
(ii) It is used as a fuel, and for lighting homes.
(iii) This gas is produced commercially in tanks by manure.
(iv) It is mainly found in rural areas.
(v) Rocks and mineral.
|(i)Rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals.
(ii)Rocks do not have definite chemical composition.
(iii) Basalt, granite, sandstone, slate and quartz are some important types of rocks.
|(i)Minerals are homogeneous nature-ally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
(ii) Rocks have definite chemical composition.
(iii) Iron, silicon, magnesium, nickel, calcium, potassium and abundant minerals of the earth.
Q.25 ‘There is a urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development’.Explain.[CBSE 2014(O)(D) Comptt.]
A.(i) Energy as a basic requirement: Energy is a basic input which is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries.
(ii) Limited energy resources:Most of the energy sources like coal, mineral oil etc. are limited. So we should use them judiciously.
(iii) Slow rate of formation:We are rapidly consuming energy resources that required millions of year to be created and concentrated. The geological processes of energy sources formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption. Energy resources are, therefore, finite and non-renewable.
(iv) Impact on environment: Overuse of energy especially the non-renewable can lead to environmental pollution.
(v) Future generations: While using our energy resources we have to keep in mind the need of future generations.
Q.26 Describe the importance of coal as a source of energy.
‘India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirement’.Support the statement with three arguments [CBSE March 2011]
A. Coal is the most available and widely used source of energy.
(i) It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs.
(ii) It is used as a raw material in the making of coal tar coal gas.
(iii) In railways and industries, it is used as fuel to run steam engines.
(iv) Cooking coal is also essential for smelting iron ore in blast furnaces.
NCERT EXERCISE for Mineral and Energy Resources Geography Chapter 5 CBSE Class 10
Q.1 (i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal (b)Bauxite
A. (a) Coal
(ii) Kodarma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(c)Iron ore (d)Copper
(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks
(b) Metamorphic rocks
(d)None of the above
A. (a)Sedimentary rocks
(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand ?
(a) Oil (b)Uranium
(c) Thorium (d)Coal
Q.2 Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i)Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a)Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.[CBSE March 2011,2013(D)]
(b)Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) What is a mineral?