Nationalism in India
Chapter 3 Social Science
History Question Answers Class 10th
Nationalism in India Important Terms :
- Vernacular Press Act : The Act through which the British government got extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular languages.
- Boycott: The refusal to deal and associate with people, or participate in activities, or buy and use things; usually a form of protest.
- Inland Emigration Act : It was an Act through Which plantation workers Were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
- Satyagraha : A non-violent method used by Gandhiji against the oppressor.
- Khilafat Movement : It was a movement organised by the famous Ali brothers, Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali to protest against the injustice done to Turkey after the war.
- Non-Cooperation Movement : This movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920. Its aims were to redress the wrong done to Punjab and Turkey and the attainment of Swaraj.
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact : It was an agreement signed in March 1931 under which the Civil Disobedience Movement was called off.
- Dandi March : Gandhiji, along with 78 of his followers, started from his Ashram at Sabarmati to Dandi on the sea coast on foot, and broke the salt law by making salt.
- Poona Pact : It was a pact which was signed between Gandhiji and Dr B.R. Ambedkar. The Pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
Nationalism in India Very Short Answer Type Questions
(1 Mark each)
Q.1. When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India from South Africa ?
Q.2. Name any two methods used by Gandhiji to fight against the Britishers.
Ans. (i) Satyagraha (ii) Non-Violence.
Q.3. List any four places where Satyagraha was launched by Gandhiji.
Ans.(i) Champaran — Bihar
(ii) Kheda — Gujarat
(iii) Ahmedabad — Gujarat
(iv) South Africa
Q.4. Identify the Act which gave enormous powers to the government to repress political.
Ans. Rowlatt Act.
Q.5. Name the General who was responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
Ans. General Dyer.
Q.6. Why did Mahatma Gandhi call off Rowlatt Satyagraha ?
Ans. Gandhiji called off Rowlatt Satyagraha due to spread of violence.
Q.7. How did Mahatma Gandhi react against the Rowlatt Act ?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch a non — violent Civil Disobedience Movement against the unjust law.
Q.8. State any two limitations of Rowlatt Satyagraha.
Ans. (i) It was limited mostly in cities and towns.
(ii) People started using violent methods so Gandhiji had to call off the Satyagraha.
Q.9. Why was the Khilafat Committee formed ?
Ans. The Khilafat Committee was formed to defend the khalifa’s temporal powers.
Q.10. Who was the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’ ?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi.
Q.11. What was the theme of the ‘Hindi Swaraj’ a book written by Mahatma Gandhi ?
Ans. In the book Gandhiji declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation.
Q.12. When was the Non-cooperation Khilafat Movement launched ?
Ans. January 1921.
Q.13. Who was Baba Ramchandra ?
Ans. He was a Sanyasi who led a Non-cooperation movement in Awadh.
Q.14. What were the major demands of the peasants who participated in the Non- cooperation Khilafat movement ? Mention any two.
Ans. (i) Reduction of revenue.
(ii) Abolition of begar.
Q.15. Why did tribal peasants participate in the Non-cooperation Khilafat movement ?
Ans. The colonial government had closed large forests areas, preventing people from entering
the forests to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
Q.16. What was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 ?
Ans. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave
the tea gardens without permission.
Q.17. When was the Non-Cooperation Movement withdrawn by Gandhiji ? Give reason.
Ans. The Non-cooperation movement was withdrawn in 1922 because of a violent incident in Chauri Chaura.
Q.18. Who were the founders of the Swaraj Party ?
Ans. C.R Das and Moti Lal Nehru.
Q.19. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju ?
Ans. He was a nationalist of Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh who led the non-cooperation of 1921.
Q.20. Name the town which was chosen by Gandhiji to break the Salt Act.
Ans. Dandi (Gujarat).
Q.21. Who was Abdul Ghaffar Khan ?
Ans. He was a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi who lead the Civil Disobedience Movement in
Q.22. Name the Commission which was formed to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India. Who was the president of the Commission ?
Ans. Simon Commission. Sir John Simon was the President.
Q.23. State the importance of the Lahore Congress session of 1929.
Ans. It was the session in which the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India
Q.24. When and under whose leadership was Civil Disobedience Movement launched ?
Ans. The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
Q.25. What was the main motive of the Salt March ?
Ans. To break the Salt law.
Q.26. Identify the incident which marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. On 6th April, Mahatma Gandhi ceremonially violated the Salt Act, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This incident marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q.27. What was Gandhi-Irwin Pact ?
Ans. The pact which was signed between Gandhiji and Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. Under this pact Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London whereas the government agreed to release all the political prisoners.
Q.28. Why did the rich peasants become enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
Ans. Because for them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
Q.29. The Congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns during the Civil Disobedience Movement. Give reason.
Ans. Because it did not want to raise issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords.
Q.30. Who announced a vague offer of ‘Dominion Status’ for India in 1929 ?
Ans. Viceroy Irwin.
Q.31. Name any two organisations which were formed by the business class to organise their business interests.
Ans. (i) Indian industrial and Commercial Congress
(ii) Federation of the lndian Chamber of Commerce and lndustries.
Q.32. Name any two industrialists who actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. (i) Purshottamdas Thakurdas
(ii) GD. Birla.
Q.33. Who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association ?
Ans. Dr B.R.Ambedkar.
Q.34. Why Dr B.R. Ambedkar clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference?
Ans. B.R. Ambedkar clashed over the issue of separate electorate for dalits.
Q.35. Name the Pact which gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
Ans. Poona Pact signed in 1932.
Q.36. Who was the first artist to create the image of Bharat Mata ?
Who was the author of the novel Anandamath ?
Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
Q.37. Who published a massive four volume collection of Tamil Folk tales. The Folklore of Southern India ?
Ans. Natesa Sastri.
Q.38. In which district of Gujarat Mahatma Gandhi organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants ?
Nationalism in India Short Answer Type Questions
(3 Marks each)
Q.1. What was Satyagraha ? Name any two places where Satyagraha was launched by Gandhiji.
Name the two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.
Ans. Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The idea Of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
(a) Champaran (1916) : Gandhiji launched the Satyagraha to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(b) Kheda (1917) : He launched the Kheda Satyagraha to support the peasants who were not in a position to pay the revenue due to crop failure.
Q.2. Who was the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’. What was the theme of the book ? Or
Explain the ideas of Gandhiji as he expressed in the famous book. ‘Hind Swaraj’ regarding Non cooperation. Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wrote the Hind Swaraj. In the book, Gandhiji declared that the british rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, the British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would be established.
Q.3. Mention any four factors which were responsible in arousing the spirit of nationalism in India.
Ans. (i) Political unification of the country under the Britishers.
(ii) Destruction of India’s old social and economic system.
(iii) Development of modern trade and industry.
(iv) The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups.
Q.4. What was the impact of the First World War on India ?
Explain new economic and political situations created in India during the First World war.
What was the impact Of the First World War on the economic conditions in India?
Ans. The War created a new economic and political situation :
(i) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. customs duties were raised, and income tax introduced.
(ii) Through the war years. prices increased — doubling between 1913 and 1918 — leading to extreme hardships for the common people.
(iii) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
Q.5. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nation wide ‘Satyagraha’ against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 ? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. (i) After arriving in India Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha movements in various places.
(ii) So When in 1919 the British Government passed the Rowlatt Act he decided to launch a satyagraha against this black act.
(iii) Rowlatt Act was the act which gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of prisoners without trial for two years.
(iv) The Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indians.
Q.6. Identify any three local issues in which Gandhiji experimented his technique of Satyagraha during the years 1917-1918. How were these issues resolved ?
Ans. The three local issues were Champaran satyagraha ; Kheda satyagraha and Ahmedabad satyagraha.
(i) Champaran Satyagraha : In the first experiment indigo farmers were encouraged to raise their voice against the oppressive policies of the British. Their demands were sanctioned.
(ii) Kheda Satyagraha :The second experiment was for the farmers who were unable to pay the revenue because of famine and plague epidemic. The recovery was waived off.
(iii) Ahmedabad Satyagraha: The third was for the mill workers who were protesting for better wages. The British had to increase the wages along with reforms in working conditions.
Q.7. What was the Rowlatt Act ? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act ?
Ans. Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in 1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Indian Disapproval
(i) Mahatma Gandhi reacted sharply and decided to launch a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust law.
(ii) Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railways, workshops and shops closed down.
(iii) Peaceful protest meeting were organised at Jallianwala Bagh-Amritsar.
Q.8. Who launched the Khilafat Movement ? Why was the Movement launched ?
Ans. Khilafat movement was a united struggle launched by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali with the cooperation Of Mahatma Gandhi. The First World War ended with the defeat Of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumours that a harsh treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islam world. The Sultan was deprived of real authority even over those territories which were left under his control. This angered the Muslims in India.
• To defend the power of Khalifa and to avert harsh peace treaty to be imposed on the Ottoman empire, the Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 in Bombay.
Q.9. “In the Calcutta Session of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi convinced other leaders to start a non cooperation movement in support of Khilafat Movement”. Examine the reason behind this conviction.
Why Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement?
Ans. (i) As the Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited to cities and towns, Gandhiji felt the need to launch a more broad based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together.So he took up the Khilafat issue.
(ii) A new Of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Q.10. Mention three main proposals with reference to the Non-cooperation Movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.
Gandhiji proposed that Non- cooperation should unfold in stages. Explain.
Ans. The Non-cooperation had two aspects, i.e., on relating to the struggle and the other relating to the norms of conduct and constructive work. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in the following stages :
(i) Surrender of titles. honours and honorary posts.
(ii) Boycott of Legislative Councils,
(iii) Boycott of law courts by the lawyers,
(iv) Boycott of Government schools and colleges, and withdrawal of children from these schools and colleges,
(v) Boycott of British goods, To get a popular support for the movement, Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively throughout India.
Q.11. Analyse the reasons for launching the Non- cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji.
Ans. (i) After returning from Africa in 1915 Gandhiji launched some local Satyagrahas but he was looking for an opportunity to launch a national level movement against the Britishers.
(ii) The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji to support the Khilafat Movement.
(iii) It was also launched against the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
(iv) Gandhiji merged the Khilafat Movement with the Movement to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Q.12. How was the Non-cooperation Movement converted into a national movement by Gandhiji ?
Ans. (i) Hindu-Muslim Unity : Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad based
movement in India. He was certain that no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together.
(ii) Merging Khilafat issue with the movement : so to unite the both the communities he decided to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman emperor — the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(iii) Talking to Muslim leaders : A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
Q.13. “The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic.” Analyse the statement.
Explain the effects of Non cooperation Movement on the economic front.
Explain the impact Of Non-Cooperation Movement in the economic field.
“Analyse any three economic effects of the Non-cooperation Movement.
Ans.(i) Fall in imports : Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from 102 crore rupees to 57 crore.
(ii) Boycott Of Foreign goods : In many Naces merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(iii) Boost for Indian industry : As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding important clothes and wearing only Indian ones. production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q.14. Who formed the Swaraj party ? Why was the party formed ?
Ans. The Swaraj was formed by C. R. Das, and Moti Lal Nehru. The Non-cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective of Swaraj. So within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C.R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
Q.15. What were the factors responsible for the slow down of the Non-cooperation movement ?
Why did the Non-cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities ? Give reasons.
Ans. (i) Expensive Khadi : The Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the mass- produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
(ii) No alternative : The boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions, had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British institutions but these were slow to come up. so students and teachers had no option except joining back government schools. and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
(iii) Local movements with different interpretation: Workers. industrialists, peasants, traders had their own interpretation of Gandhiji’s notion of ‘Swaraj. They started using violent methods for their
demands. All this was not approved by Gandhiji and the Congress. So the movement started losing its shine.
Q.16. Analyse the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people.
Ans. (i) As the news of Jallianwala Bagh spread, crowd took to the streets in many north Indian towns.
(ii) There were strikes dashes with the police and attack on government buildings.
(iii) Indian leaders and people realised the need to launch a more broad based movement in india.
(iv) Jallianwala Bagh incident had a far reaching impact on the people’s minds and the way they look the British Raj.
Q.17. Analyse the circumstances which led to Jallianwala Bagh incident.
Ans. (i) Rowlatt Act : The Rowlatt Act was passed by the government despite the united opposition of the Indian members. The act gave enormous powers to the police to arrest any one without any trail.
(ii) Rowlatt Satyagraha : Gandhiji decided to launch Rowlatt Satyagraha. Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike, and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British government decided to arrest Indian leaders. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Delhi.
(iii) Martial Law : Seeing the people’s reaction against the arrest of their leaders police imposed Martial law in Amritsar. On 13th April 1919 General Dyer fired at the people who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh killing many.
Q.18. “Plantation workers too had their own understanding of Gandhiji’s notion of Swaraj.” Explain.
“The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and notion of Swaraj.” Support the statement with arguments.
Ans. (i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined Space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. (ii) The government had passed the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 under which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea estates without permission, and in fact. they were rarely given such permission.
(iii) When the plantation workers heard of the non-cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their homes.
(iv) The plantation workers believed that the Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would given land in their own villages.
Q.19. Why did the tribal people join the Non- Cooperation Movement ?
Explain the conditions of the plantation workers during the Colonial rule in India.
Ans. Most of the tribal were dependent on forests policy for their livelihood but under the new Forest policy, the government had put several restrictions on the people :
(i) Closing large forest area for the tribal people.
(ii) Forcing the local people to contribute begar.
(iii) preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits.
All these steps enraged the hill. Not only were their livelihoods affected, but they felt that their traditional rights were also being denied. so the people revolted.
Q.20. Explain the circumstances under which Non-cooperation Movement was with-drawn.
Why was the Non-cooperation Movement withdrawn by Gandhiji in February 1922 ? Explain the reasons.
Ans. In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement due to the following reasons —
(i) The movement was turning violent. At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration in a bazar turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
(ii) Gandhiji felt that the Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle. (iii) Within the Congress, some leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils, which were set up under the Government of India Act, 1919.
(iv) Industrialists, workers, peasants etc. interpreted the term ‘Swaraj’ in their own way. At many places like that of Andhra Pradesh, leaders like Alluri Sitaram Raju asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force. But there values were not approved by the Congress.
Q.21. Why was the Swaraj Party formed ? By whom was the party formed ?
Ans. There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea Of fighting the British
from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurise the government for various reforms
through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objectives, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.
Q.22. Why Was the Simon Commission constituted ? Why was the Commission rejected by the Indians ?
Ans. The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the
Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon. However Indians boycotted the commission, because :
(i) There was no Indian member in this commission.
(ii) The terms of the commission’s appointment did not give any indication of Swaraj while the demand of the Indians was only Swaraj.
Q.23. Analyse the circumstances that lead to the demand of Purna Swaraj by the Congress.
Mention the main contents of resolution passed in the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress in December 1929 held under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. Or
Explain the reason for the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session.
Ans. (i) The Lahore Congress Session formalised the demand of Purna Swaraj or full independence for India.
(ii) It was declared that 26th January would be celebrated as Independence Day when people were to take pledge to struggle for complete independence.
(iii) Indian leaders pledged to sever the British connection.
Q.24. Why salt was chosen as a weapon by Gandhiji to fight against the Britishers ?
Why did Mahatma Gandhi perceive ‘salt’ as a powerful symbol that unite the nation?
Ans. (i) Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the
most essential items of food.
(ii) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule.
(iii) Salt was chosen to give the movement a wide base.
Q.25. Why did the poor peasants join the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Why did the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remain uncertain ?
Ans. (i) The poor peasants had their own problems. They were not just interested in lowering of the revenue, but also demanded remission of rent which they had failed to pay during the depression years.
(ii) In some parts Of the country, they launched a ‘no rent’ campaign which was not supported by the Congress because this might had upset the rich peasants and landlords.
(iii) These poor peasants joined a variety Of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress remained uncertain.
Q.26. Why did the business class participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain.
Ans. (i) Great Depression Of 1929 : The Great Depression Of 1929 immediately affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly.
(ii) Expansion of business : During the First World War. Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and become powerful. Keen on expanding their business. they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(iii) Free trade : Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
Q.27. Who led the business community during the Civil Disobedience Movement ? How did the community provide a big boost to the movement ?
Explain with examples the role of industrialist in the freedom struggle of India.
Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialist towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.
Ans. The business community was led by prominent industrialists like Mr. Purshottamdas and Mr. G.D. Birla. (i) By opposing colonial policies : The industrial class was keen on expanding their business, so they reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(ii) Forming ‘various organisations : To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber Of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iii) Support to Civil Disobedience Movement : Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla, the industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
(iv) Financial aid : They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
(v) Role Of working class : The industrial working class also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. In 1930 thousands of workers in Chotanagpur participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
Q.28. “The business community later withdrew from the Civil Disobedience Movement. Analyse any three reasons.
Ans. (i) After the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(ii) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption Of business.
(iii) They were worried about the growing influence Of socialism amongst the younger members of Congress.
Q.29. Why did the industrial working class not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers ? Mention any two demands of the workers who participated in the movement.
“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.
Ans. The individual classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress Was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.
Demands of workers
(i) They demanded higher wages.
(ii) They working conditions.
Q.30. Explain the effects of worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s.
Ans. (i) The depression immediately affected Indian trade. India’S exports and imports nearly
halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India plunged. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50 per cent.
(ii) The fall in prices had a deep impact on the poor farmers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply but the colonial government refused to give any relief to the farmers in taxes. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit —
• Their indebtedness increased.
• They were forced to sell or mortgage their
• People were forced to sell their like gold and silver.
• Indian jute producers were worst affected.
(iii) The unrest created by the Great Depression provided an opportunity to Mahatma Gandhi to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931.
(iv) The depression proved less grim for urban India. Because of falling prices those with fixed income—like town-dwelling landowners who received rents and middle-class salaried employees—now found themselves off. Everything cost less. Industrial investment also grew as the government extended tariff protection to industries, under the pressure of nationalist opinion.
Q.31. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement called off by Gandhiji ?
Ans. (i) When Indian leaders were arrested, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of
Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(ii) A month later, when Gandhiji himself was arrested, industrial workers attacked police posts, government buildings, law courts and railway stations and all structures that symbolised the British rule.
(iii) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children Were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested
(iv) To break the deadline between Congress and the government Lord Irwin invited Gandhiji for a peace pact i.e., Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
(v) Under such a situation Gandhiji decided to call off the movement.
Q.32. When was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact signed ? Mention the provisions of the pact.
Ans. Gandhi—Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March, 1931.
Provisions of the pact
(i) Gandhiji consented to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
(ii) The government agreed to release the political prisoners.
Q.33. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement relaunched by Gandhiji ?
Ans. (i) Failure of the Second Round Table Conference : In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the conference, but the negotiations broke down, and he returned disappointed.
(ii) New cycle of repression : Back in India, Gandhiji discovered that the government had
begun a new cycle of repression. Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail, the Congress had been declared illegal, and a series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. With great apprehension, Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q.34. Who designed the Swaraj flag? What were the features of this flag ? How was it used as a symbol of defiance ?
What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal ? Explain its main features.
(i) It was a tricolour (red, green and white).
(ii) It had eight lotus representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
(iii) People used to carry the flag, holding it aloft, during marches.
Q.35. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great
apprehension ? Explain.
Ans. (i) After the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were no longer uniformly enthusiastic.
(ii) They were apprehensive of the spread of militant activities, and worried about prolonged disruption of business.
(iii) From the mid 1920’s the congress came to more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. So a large section of Muslims started keeping away from it. Each community started blaming each other for the wedge leading to communal clashes.
(iv) The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement in larger numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.
Nationalism in India Long Answer Questions
(4/5 Marks each)
Q.1. What was Satyagraha ? Explain some Of the satyagrahas launched by Gandhiji.
A satyagraha wins the battle through non- violence.” Explain with examples.
“Gandhiji’s Satyagraha combines the ideas of truth and non-violence”. Explain with three examples.
Ans. Satyagraha was a non-violent method Of mass agitation against the oppressor. The method
suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor.
(i) Gandhiji the Satyagraha technique successfully against injustice in south Africa.
(ii) In 1916 A.D., he fought for justice for the tenants of Champaran, and the Government had to pass an Act for the welfare of the peasants of Champaran in 1918 AD.
(iii) He started the Kheda Satyagraha in which Gandhiji asked the people not to pay the taxes due to the failure of crops. Ultimately, the Government had to bow, and the payment of taxes was deferred to the next year.
(iv) Again in 1918 AD, Gandhiji intervened in the Mill Workers’ Strike at Ahmedabad and helped them to get their pay raised, for which he had started a fast unto death.
Q.2. What were the circumstances which led to the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
Why did Mahatma Gandhi feel the need to launch a broad-based movement in 1920 ? Give any three reasons. Or
Explain any three causes that led to the Non-cooperation Movement in 1920.
Ans. (i) Conditions Created by the First World War : The First World War was fought from 1914 to 1918.
(a) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by taxes.
(b) Due to war prices increased many times leading to extreme hardship for common people.
(c) Crops failed in 1918-19 resulting in acute shortage of food.
(d) Many people lost their lives in the war and due to the epidemic.
(e) Forced recruitment in the army caused widespread anger.
(ii) Gandhiji’s Return and Satyagraha Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915 where he had successfully fought against the racist regime with his new method Of mass agitation and non-violence known as Satyagraha. In India he launched Satyagraha movements at various places. These satyagrahas provided base to the non cooperation Movement.
(iii) The Rowlatt Act : The Act was passed by the imperial Legislative Assembly. The act provided enormous powers to police. The police got the power to arrest anyone without any trial. The aim of the act was to repress political activities.
(iv) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre : The Jallian- Wala Bagh added fuel to the fire. Peoplewere already agitating against the Rowlatt Act. People had gathered to protest against the new act in the Jallianwala Bagh.General Dyer entered the park and ordered fire killing many people.As the news spread, crowds took to the streets.
(v) United Struggle : The fear of harsh treaty on the Ottoman emperor (the Khalifa) brought the Muslims close to Gandhiji. A young generation of Muslim leaders like Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was in favour of a united mass action against the Britishers.
Q.3. What was the reaction of the people against the Rowlatt Act ?
Explain the reactions of Indian people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919.
Ans. (i) Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction : Mahatma Gandhi wanted a non-violent civil disobedience Movement against the unjust law which would start with a hartal on 6th April.
(ii) Rallies and strikes : Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in
railway workshops, and shops closed down.
(iii) Damage to public property : On 10th april the policemen in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful
procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.
(iv) Meeting at Jallianwale Bagh: On 13th April a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. To protest against the government’s new repressive measures.
(v) United struggle : Rowlatt Act had a deep and long lasting impact on the people.both Hindu and Muslim realised a need for a united struggle.
Q.4. Explain the course of the Non cooperation Movement in the towns.
Describe the extent of peoples participation in the Non-cooperation Movement in the towns.
How did ‘Non-cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country ? Explain its effects on the economic front.
How did non cooperation Movement start with participation of middle class in the cities ? Explain its impact on the economic front.
Ans. (i) The movement in the cities: The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges. headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(ii) Boycott of council elections: The Council were boycotted in most provinces except Madras (Chennai).
(iii) Swadeshi : The Non-Cooperation Movement had a great impact on the Indian textile industry. Swadeshi goods, especially cloth got a great impetus. Foreign goods were boycotted liquor shops picketed. and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(iv) Impact on industry : In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.Due to this, the demand of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. The increase in demand provided a big relief to the vanishing textile industry of India.
(v) Movement in the countryside : people in the countryside interpreted the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in their own way but they participated in the movement on large scale. In Awadh. peasants launched the
movement against the talukdars and landlords. Whereas the plantation workers launched the movement against the tea estate owners.
Q.5. Explain the course Of the non cooperation Movement in the countryside.
How did the non cooperation Movement spread to the countryside.
or Describe the movement led by Baba Ram Chandra in Awadh against the talukdars and landlords.
How did the peasants of Awadh use different methods to achieve their goal ?
What were the methods used by peasants of Awadh to achieve their goal ? Explain.
Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-cooperation Movement.
Ans. (I) Participants : In the countryside, the movement was led by the peasants,tribals and the local leaders. For example, in Awadh, it was Baba Ramchandra sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an
(II) Why the rural participated ? The movement here was not against the Britishers but against talukdars and landlords. The problems of the rural people were different from those of the urban people.
• The talukdars and landlords were demanding very high rents and a variety Of other taxes. • Peasants had to do begar and work at the landlord’s farms without any payment.
• The peasants had no security of tenure. They were regularly evicted so that they could acquire no security of tenure. As the problems of the people were different, their demands were also different. The peasant movement demanded :
• Reduction of revenue
• Abolition of begar
• Redistribution of land
• Social boycott of oppressive landlords.
(III) Ways of protests : The Movement in the countryside had a different angle. In many places, Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by the Panchayats to deprive the landlords of the services of barbers. cobblers, washermen, etc. Even national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru went to villages in Awadh to know the grievances of the people. By October, the Awadh Kissan Sabhas were set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra. and a few others. When the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked. The movement turned violent which was not liked by some of the Congress leaders.
Q.6. Analyse any four features of Gudem rebellion of Andhra Pradesh.
Explain the main features of Gudem rebellion.
Describe the contribution made by Alluri Sitaram Raju to the Non-Cooperation Movement in Andhra Pradesh.
“Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in yet another way”. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. (i) The Gudem rebellion spread in response to the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921.
(ii) In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920 under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju against forest laws.
(iii) The rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God as he could make correct astrological predictions and heal people.
(iv) Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi and was inspired by Non- Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force.
(v) The Gudem rebels attacked police station, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju was arrested and executed in 1924.
Q.7. Under what circumstances the Civil Disobedience or the Salt Movement was launched? Explain.
Describe the main events leading to Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
Ans. (i) Failure of the Simon Commission : The Simon Commission was constituted in response to the nationalist movement. But the Commission failed to satisfy the Indian people and the leaders. All the parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.
In an effort to win them over the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status. But even this failed to satisfy the leaders.
(ii) Purna Swaraj : In december 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26th January, 1930, would be celebrated as the independence Day when people were to take a pledge to
struggle for complete independence. But the celebrations attracted very little attention. So Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life. (iii) Rejection of Gandhi ‘s Eleven Demands : On 31st January. 1930, Mahatma Gandhi, in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct the Wrongs done to the Indians. He assured the Viceroy that he would withdraw the Civil Disobedience on British Government’s acceptance of these demands. However, Gandhi’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy.
(iv) Economic Causes : The Great Depression of 1929 had a deep impact on the Indian economy, especially on agriculture. Prices of agricultural produce began to fall from 1926, and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and export declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest. and to pay their revenue. The government refused to lower the taxes. So by 1930. the farmers were in poor condition.
(v) Support from business class : The business class was keen on expanding their business and were against the colonial policies that restricted business activities. They decided to provide financial support to Civil disobedience Movement when it was launched.
Q.8. Explain the Course of the Salt March.
Ans. (i) On January 31st, 1930, Gandhi wrote a long letter to the Viceroy. communicating his decision to start the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) On 12th March, Mahatma Gandhi Began his historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat seacoast.
(iii) He was accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers, but as Gandhiji advanced, others joined the party.
(iv) On the morning of 6th April. Gandhiji violated the salt laws by picking up some salt from the water Gandhiji’s campaign against the salt laws was a signal to disobey the Government laws.
The Programme of the Movement : The Civil Disobedience campaign involved defiance of salt laws, boycott of liquor, boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kinds.
Q.9. ‘Large sections of Muslims did not respond to the call for a united struggle during the Civil disobedience Movement. Explain.
‘Some of the Muslim political Organisations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement.
Ans. (i) Association of Congress with Hindu Mahasabha : After the decline of the Non- cooperation — Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the congress.
From the mid 1920s, the congress came to more visibly associated with Openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(ii) Communal Clashes : As relations between the Hindus and the Muslims worsened. Each community organised religious processions with militant fervour. provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance the two communities.
(iii) Issue of demand for separate electorates : Some of the Muslim leaders demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims which was not supported by the Congress leaders.
(iv) Status of Muslims in Hindu majority state : Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals
expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
(v) Issue of reserved seats in the Central Assembly : Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Central Assembly but this was not acceptable to the Congress leaders.So Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.
Q.10. Explain the progress Of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the countryside.
Why did the rich peasants of Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat join the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
Describe any three features of the Civil Disobedience Movement Of 1930.
Evaluate any three features of the peasant movement during Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
Mention three reasons by which the rich peasant communities took active part in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans.(i) In the countryside. rich peasant communities-like the patidars of Gujarat and the Jats Of Uttar Pradesh were active participants.
(ii) They participated in the Movement because they suffered the most due to the economic
depression. As their cash income disappeared. they found it impossible to pay the governments revenue demand.
(iii) They demanded a reduction in revenue but the government refused to do so. This led to a widespread resentment. These rich landlords participated in the boycott programmes and refused to pay revenues. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
(iv) But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them did not participate.
(v) The poor peasantry also participated on a large scale in a hope that their unpaid rent to the landlords will be remitted.
Q.11. Why for a long time, the Congress had ignored the dalits ? What role did Gandhiji play in uplifting them.
How did Gandhiji view the Dalits ? What did he do for them ?
Ans. For long, the Congress had ignored the dalits, for the fear of Offending the Sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus. But Mahatma Gandhi declared that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. Under his constructive programme he laid stress on the removal Of untouch- ability. He called them (untouchable) the harijans — meaning the children of God. He also organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, and access to public wells. tanks, roads and schools. He himself toured their colonies, and even lived there. He even cleaned toilets to dignity the work of the sweepers.
Q .12. Appraise the role of Dr B. R. Ambedkar in uplifting the dalits.
Explain the role of Ambedkar in uplifting the dalits or the depressed classes.
Ans. (i) Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar was of the opinion that only political empowerment would
resolve their problems of social injustice.
(ii) Due to his efforts, Dalits began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorate that would choose the dalit for legislative councils.
(iii) In 1930, Ambedkar entered national politics.In the same year. he organised the Depressed Classes Association to make them politically more strong.
(iv) He was nominated as a delegate of the oppressed classes for the Second Round Table Conference. In that Round Table Conference, he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
(v) He demanded a separate electorates for dalits. TO give them political power he signed poona Pact. The Poona pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
Q.13. When and why was the Poona Pact signed ?
Examine the background of the poona pact of 1932 in the light of differences between Gandhiji and Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
Examine the background of the Poona Pact of 1932.
Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’
Ans. (i) Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar was nominated as a delegate of the oppresæd classes for the
second Round Table Conference.
(ii) In that round Table Conference. he clashed with Mahatma Gandhi by demanding separate electorates for the dalits.
(iii) When the British government accepted ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. The issue was eventually resolved through the poona pact of 1932.
(iv) It gave the Depressed Classes (later to known as the scheduled Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
Q.14. Analyse the circumstances which led Gandhiji to choose abolition of salt tax as the most important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Or Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January 1930 ? Why was abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand ? Explain.
Ans. On 31 January1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
Some of these were of general interest: others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. The idea was to make the demands wide-ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
(i) The most stirring of all demands to abolish salt tax. Salt was something consumed by
the rich and the poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a most powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(iii) The demands were not fulfilled. So on 11th March 1930, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march along with 78 volunteers from his Ashram in Sabarmati.
(iv) On 6th April he reached Dandi and violated the laws by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
Q.15. “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.” Explain.
How did the idea of nationalism develop a movement to revive Indian folklore ? Give three points.
Ans. (i) History and fictions, folklore and songs popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
(ii) In the late nineteenth century India, nationalists began recording folk tales Sung by bards, and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
(iii) This was done to promote the traditional culture that had been corrupted, and damaged by the western forces.
(iv) To revive the folklore, Rabindranath Tagore himself collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for the folk revival.
(v) A massive four-volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India was published by Natesa Sastri. He believed that the folklore was national literature: it was ‘the most trustworthy manifestation of real thoughts and characteristics’.
Q.16. How flag was to promote the spirit of nationalism among the Indians ?
Ans. (i) During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was
designed. It had eight lotuses representing the eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing the Hindus and the Muslims.
(ii) By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red. green and white), and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.
(iii) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Q.17. Which incident marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement ? How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from Non cooperation movement ?
Ans. On 6th April 1930. Gandhiji reached Dandi, and violated salt manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Disobedience Movement.
Q.18. ‘Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation. “Justify the statement.
How did a variety of Cultural processes play an important role in developing a sense of nationalism in India ? Explain with examples.
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages group develop the sense of collective belonging in India during the freedom struggle. Explain. OR
Explain the major factors which promoted the sense of nationalism in the Indians.
Ans. (i) United struggle : The most important factor responsible for arousing the sense of nationalism among the Indians was the united struggle against the Britishers.
(ii) Cultural processes : There were also a variety Of cultural processes through which
nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making Of nationalism.
(iii) Bharat Mata : The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. which was created in 1870 by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who wrote
‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the Motherland. Inspired by the Swadeshi Movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted his famous image Of Bharat Mata.
(iv) Revival of Indian Folklore : The idea of nationalism was also developed by reviving the Indian Folklore. In late-nineteenth- century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. This was done to promote the traditional
culture that had been corrupted and damaged by western forces. It was essential
to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
(v) Reinterpretation of History : By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instil a sense Of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently. The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began into the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times. The nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to the miserable conditions Of life under British rule.
Q.19. Describe various problems in unifying people in India by the end of the 19″ century.
What were the limits Of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
What are the limitations of Civil Disobedience Movement ? Explain.
Explain any four limitations of Civil DisobedienceMovement of 1930.
Ans. (i) Problem of depressed classes : For long. the Congress had ignored the dalits or
depressed classes for fear of offending the conservative high caste Hindus. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Class Association clashed with Gandhiji at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
(ii) Wedge between Hindu-Muslims : From the mid 1920s the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha. So a large section of muslims started keeping away from it. Each community started blaming each Other for the wedge leading to communal clashes.
(iii) Separate electorates and two nation theory : Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader Of the Muslim League. demanded separate electorates for the Muslims as he feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
(iv) Muslim leaders : Many prominent Muslim leaders like Muhammad Iqbal supported electorates. They also proposed a two nation theory under which it was presumed that both communities belong to different nations.
(v) Formation of Muslim league : Muslim League was established in 1920. The formation of Muslim League gave a vital blow to the united struggle.
(v) Non-participation of industrial worker : The industrial working classes did not
participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. This was because industrialists were supporting the Movement and Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demand as part of the Movement.
Q.20. How did the Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country ? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) The movement started from Dandi on 6th April 1930. It was a place where Gandhiji ceremonially violated the Salt Act by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
(ii) Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law.
(iii) In Peshawar the movement was led by Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
(iv) In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of
Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement.
(v) Thousands of industrial workers of Nagpur participated in the movement.
(vi) In 1930 thousands of workers in Chota Nagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 10th CHAPTER 3 Nationalism in India
(a) Why is the growth of nationalism in the colonies linked to an anti-colonial movement ?
(b) How did the first World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India ?
Explain any four facts to show how did the first World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why were Indians outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?
(d) Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
Ans. (a) (i) In India, as in Vietnam and many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the Anti-colonial Movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared that tied many different groups together.
(ii) The European powers considered their culture more civilised, modern and superior. They forcefully started imposing their culture on the colonies. This also aroused the feeling of nationalism.
(iii) Gandhiji used ‘Satyagraha’ against the Britishers. This also promoted the spirit of nationalism among the people.
(iv) The anti-colonial movement was a united struggle by the people against the
foreigners. The united struggle was responsible for arousing the spirit of nationalism.
(b) Refer Q.NO. 4, Short Answer Questions.
(c) Refer Q.NO. 5, Short Answer Questions.
(d) Refer Q.No. 20, Short Answer Type
Q.2. What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha ?
Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.
Ans. It was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the Oppressor.
(i) It emphasised the power of truth and the need to search the truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, there is no need or physical force to fight the oppressor.
(iii) People-including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.
(iv) By this struggle, truth was bound to be victorious.
Q.3. Write a newspaper report on :
(a) Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre : A public meeting was announced for the 13th April, 1919, at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act. The people were allowed to assemble there. After they had gathered there in thousands, General Dyer marched there with armoured cars and troops. Without giving any warning to the people to disperse, he ordered firing on the unarmed, and the peaceful people.The casualties among the Indians were very heavy. Dyer’s purpose in doing so was to ‘produce a moral effect’. to create in the minds of Satyagrahis, a feeling of terror and awe. This massacre of innocent people in thousands converted Mahatma Gandhi into a non cooperator.
(b). (i) The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chainman was Sir John Simon. (ii) Why was it boycotted by the Indians? But Indians boycotted the Simon Commission because there was no Indian member in this commission. The terms of the commission’s appointment did not give any indication of ‘Swaraj’, while the demand of the Indians was only ‘Swaraj’. Therefore, the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and other parties decided to oppose the Simon commission.
(iii) Methods : Indian people organised hartals all over the country. They also held black flag demonstration with the slogan. “Simon go back”, when the Commission reached Bombay (Mumbai). Such demonstrations were held everywhere it went .
Q.4. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement Of 1921. Choose any three, and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans. Social Groups who took part in the Non- Cooperation Movement : In the Non- Cooperation Movement (1920-1922). the following social groups took part.
(i) Middle-class in the towns. Refer Long
Answer Q NO. 4.
(ii) Peasants in the rural areas. Refer Long
Answer Q NO. 5. (iii) Tribal people Refer Short Q. No. 19.
(iv) Plantation workers. Refer Short Answer
Q. No. 18.
Q.5. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans. (i) It was the first time that Indian leaders decided to violate law. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.
(ii) Thousands Of Indians in different parts of the country broke the salt law. manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories.
(iii) As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted and liquor shops were picketed.
Peasants refused to pay revenue and ‘chaukidari taxes’ , village Officials resigned, and in many places forest people violated forest laws.
(iv) Arresting Of leaders by the government led to violent clashes in many places. Angry crowd demonstrated in the streets, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(v) The outcome of the movement was the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which was signed by Gandhiji with Irwin On 5th March. 1931. By this Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the prisoners.
Q.6.Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
‘Women’ played a very important role in the Civil Disobedience Movement. • Explain.
Ans. Refer Q.No. 10 HOTS Questions.
Higher Order Thinking Skills (Hots) Questions
Nationalism in India
Q.1. Carefully study the given paragraph from your textbook and answer the questions that follows :
As the news of the Jallianwala Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes and clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings. The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people:
Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground,crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs ; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed. Seeing violence spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement.
(i) Which Movement was called off by Gandhiji ?
(ii) Why was the Movement launched ?
Ans.(i) The Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22).
(ii) The Rowlatt Act of 1919 had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Another reason was the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh of 1919.
Q.2. Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clampdown on nationalists.
Ans. (i) Rowlatt Act : Rowlatt Act was an oppressive act introduced by the British Government in
1919. It gave the Government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
(ii) Imposing martial law : Whenever the nationalists used to launch a mass movement the government responded with martial law. During Rowlatt Satyagraha, Non-Cooperation movement, Civil Disobedience movement, etc. the government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorise people : satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs; people were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.
(iii) Putting the nationalists behind the bars: During every mass movement the nationalist
leaders were picked up and put behind the bars. For eg. during Rowlatt Satyagraha most of the local leaders were arrested and during Civil Disobedience movement Abdul Ghaffar, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders were arrested and put behind the bars.
Q.3. Mention any three efforts made by Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights.
Ans. (i) He said that the Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
(ii) He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
(iii) He signed Poona pact with Dr B.R. Ambedkar through which some seats were reserved for them in provincial and central legislative councils.
Q.4. How did the British government respond to protests, clashes and attacks by the Indians against the Jallianwala Bagh incident ?
Ans. (i) The government responded with brutal repression.
(ii) Seeking to humiliate and terrorise people, Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground. (iii) They were forced to crawl on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs.
(iv) People were flogged and villages (around Gujranwala in Punjab) were Bombed.
Q.5. Explain the contribution of the various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement for different reasons. Choose any four and explain their reason to participate in the movement.
Ans. (i) Rich peasants : Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices. As the government refused to reduce revenue demands, they in great numbers participated in the boycott programmes. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
(ii) Women : The women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed
foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty Of women.
(iii) Business class : A large number of merchants and industrialists supported this movement. They reacted against colonial policies that restricted their business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods.
(iv) The industrial working class : The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers except in Nagpur. They selectively adopted some of the ideas of Gandhian programme, like of foreign goods. as part Of their own movements against low wages and working conditions.
Q.6. What did the image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore portray ?
Ans. (i) Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure.
(ii) She is calm, composed. divine and spiritual.
(iii) This mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
(iv) Mother figure is shown as dispensing learning, food and clothing.
Q.7. ‘Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and sparking in them feeling of nationalism.’ Give two pieces of evidence to support the above statement.
State the icons and symbols that advocated nationalism in India.
Ans. (i) The image Of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India. the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure-calm, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power.
(ii) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of the British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji designed the Swaraj flag.
Q.8. Explain the impact Of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people .
Ans. (i) Jallianwala bagh incident took place on 13th April 1919. On that day, a large crowd had gathered in an enclosed ground to show their resistance against the Rowlatt Act. General Dyer opened fire killing hundreds of people.
(ii) As the news of Jallianwala Bagh massacre spread, crowds took to the streets. There were strikes. clashes with the police and attack on government buildings.
(iii) Indian leaders and the people realised that there was need to launch a united mass action.
Q.9. Explain the social and moral values you have learnt from the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. (i) Satyagraha : Mahatma Gandhi emphasised on a novel method of mass agitation. which
he called Satyagraha. The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive. A satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People including the oppressors—had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma Of Non-violence could unite all Indians.
(ii) Non-violence : Gandhiji’S whole philosophy was based on non-violence. According to Gandhiji, it is the weapon of strong, mighty and powerful individuals. He was of the opinion that neither an individual nor a country could gain anything by using violent methods.
(iii) Religious ideals : Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives. And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence. (iv) Social Justice : Gandhi was a social reformer who fought the evils of communalism untouchability, purdah and the dowry system. He called the untouchables Harijans (God’s people) who must be respected.
(v) Women Empowerment : His crusade for the liberation of women and the oppressed classes shows his deep concern about social justice. He inspired the women to take active part in the political affairs of the country and play an important role in the national movement.
Q.10. Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation ? How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain.
Explain the role of women in the Civil Movement.
Ans. Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives and for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
(i) Women participated in large numbers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) During the movement, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to Gandhiji.
(iii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
(iv) Many were put to jail by the police.
(v) Moved by Gandhiji’S call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
Q.11.Reinterpretation of history helped in promoting the sense of nationalism. Explain.
Ans. (i) By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians began feeling that to instil a sense of
pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently.
(ii) The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves.
(iii) In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times. When art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished.
(iv) This glorious time, in their view, was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonised.
(v) These nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.