NCERT Solutions of Sectors of the Indian Economy CBSE Class 10 Economics Chapter 2
Sectors of The Indian Economy
- Economic Activities: The activities which contribute of the flow of goods and services in an economy.
- GDP: It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year.
- Final Goods: Final goods are goods which are ready for use. For example, a pen.
- Intermediate Goods: There are goods that are used up during the production process. For example, cotton is used up during the production process of cloth.
- Right to work: Under this right all those who are ready to work at prevailing wages are given work by the government.
- Organized Sector: It a sector which covers those enterprises of places of work, where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have regular work.
- Unorganized Sector: Any sector or industrial unit which is largely outside the control of the government.
- Public Sector: Any sector which is controlled and managed by the government is known as the public sector for e.g. Indian Railway.
- Primary Activity: Primary activity includes those occupations which are closely related to man’s natural environment. Gathering, hunting, fishing, animal rearing, farming, and mining are some of the important examples of primary activity.
- Secondary Activity: The occupations which produce finished goods by using the products of primary activities as raw materials are included in the secondary activity. Manufacturing of cloth from cotton, sugar from sugarcane, and steel from iron –ore are important examples of secondary activity.
- Tertiary Activity: Tertiary activity consists of all service occupations, Transport, communication, trade, health, education, and administration are important examples of tertiary activity.
Question Bank for Sectors of the Indian Economy Chapter 2
Very Short Answer Type Questions(1 Mark each)
Q.1 What are economic activities?
A. The activities contribute to the flow of goods and services in an economy.
Q.2 There are many activities that are undertaken by directly using natural resources. What are these activities known as?
When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources in which category of the economic sector such activities come? [CBSE 2018(O)]
A. Primary activities.
Q.3 Give any two examples of primary activities.
A. (i) Animal rearing (ii) Lumbering.
Q.4 Dairy is a primary activity’.Give reason.
A. In the case of dairy we are dependent on the biological process of the animals and availability of fodder. The product i.e. milk is also a natural product.
Q.5 By what other names the primary sector is known as?
A. Agriculture and related sectors.
Q.6 What is the secondary sector?
A. The secondary sector includes activities in which natural products are changed into other forms manually or through machines.
Q.7 Give two examples of secondary activities.
A.(i) Manufacturing of car.
(ii) Manufacturing f chair.
Q.8 What is the tertiary sector?
A. The sector provides support services to both primary and secondary sectors. For example, banking, trade communication, etc.
Q.9 Why tertiary sector is also termed as the service sector?
A. The tertiary sector is termed as service sector because tertiary sector provides support service to primary and secondary sectors.
Q.10 Which organization in India undertakes the task of measuring GDP?
A.Central Government Ministry.
Q.11 What are final goods?
A. The final goods are goods which are ready for use. For example, a pen.
Q.12 What are intermediate goods?
A. These are the goods which are used up during the production process.
Q.13 ‘While calculating Gross Domestic product the value of only final goods should be included’.Give reason.
A.Because the final goods already include the value of all intermediate goods.
Q.14 Which sector has shown the highest growth rate?
Q.15 Which sector is the largest employer?
Q.16 What is the Right to work?
A. Under this right all those who are ready to work at prevailing wages are given work by the government.
Q.17 There is a need for protection and support of the workers in the unorganized sector. Given two reasons.
A.(i) Workers of the unorganised sector are not paid fair wages.
(ii) The working conditions are very poor.
Q.18 What is a public sector?
A. Any sector which is controlled and managed by the government is known as public sector.e.g.Indian Railway.
Q.19On what basis, the sectors are classified into public and private sector? [CBSE Sept.2010,2012,14]
A. Ownership of enterprises.
Q.20 In which year the national Rural Employment Guarantee Act was implemented? [CBSE Sept.2010]
Q.21 Sahara Airlines and B.S.E.S are examples of:[CBSE Sept.2011]
A. Private sector.
Q.22 What is the main motive of private sector enterprises? [CBSE Sept.2011,2012]
A. Profit making.
Q.23 What will happen if the government fails to provide 100 days employment under NREGA? [CBSE Sept.2012]
A. Unemployment allowance will be given.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 Mark each)
Q.1 What is under employment? Explain with an example.[CBSE Sept.2013]
A. (i) It is situation under which people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential.
(ii)For example, to cultivate a field only two workers are required but the whole family of five people is working as they have nowhere else to go work.
(iii)This type of unemployment is also known as disguised unemployment.
Q.2What are secondary activities? Explain with examples [CBSE Sept.2010]
A. The occupations which produce finished goods by using the products of primary activities as raw materials are included in secondary activity. Manufacturing of cloth from cotton, sugar from sugarcane and steel from iron ore are important examples of secondary activities.
All these are secondary activities because the final product is to be produced not by nature but has to be produced not by nature but has to be made by men and, therefore, some process of manufacturing is essential.
Let us take an example of coth. Though the primary product i.e cotton is produced by nature, but it cannot be used directly by us in this form. So to convert it into usable form some process of manufacturing is essential. This can be done in factory or at home with simple tools.
Q.3 What are tertiary activities ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept.2010]
A. Tertiary activity consists of all service occupations. Transport, communication, trade, health, education and administration are important examples of tertiary activities.
These tertiary activities help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good, but they are an aid or a support for the production process. So these are also known as support services.
Q.4 What are primary activities? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept.2010]
Which sector of economy does provide the base for all other products? Explain with the help of any two examples. [CBSE 2015]
A. Primary activity includes those occupations which are closely related to man’s natural environment. Gathering, hunting, fishing, lumbering, animal rearing, farming and mining are some of important examples of primary activities. Let us understand the concept with the help of an example-Animal rearing or dairy is a primary activity. In the biological process of the animals, and the availability of fodder.etc. The product milk, is also a natural product.
The most important feature of primary sector is that it forms the base for all other activities.
Q.5 What is GDP ? Who is responsible for collecting data for the GDP in India? [CBSE Comp.(O)2008,14,15]
A. It is the value of goods and services produced within a country during given time period. India, the mammoth task of measuring the GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry. This ministry with the help of various government departments of all the Indian States and Union Territories, collects information relating to the total volume of goods and services and their prices, and the then estimates the GDP.
Q.6 What is disguised unemployment? Explain. [CBSE 2010(D).Sept.2010]
How far is it correct to say that disguised unemployment can also be called underemployment? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
A.(i) It is a situation in which more workers are working in an activity than required. The people who are actually engaged in such an activity appear to be employed, but are not fully employed.
(ii)For example, if for the cultivation of one hecatare land,10 workers are required, but instead land,10 workers,15 workers are working. In this case,5 workers are disguised unemployed. In such cases, even if the surplus workers are removed, the production will not suffer.
(iii)This type of unemployment is basically found in agriculture.
(iv) This type of unemployment can also be called underemployment because workers perform their productivity level.
Q.7 What is an organized sector? Explain [CBSE 2009(O)]
A.(i) An organized sector covers those enterprises or places or work where the terms of employment are regular and therefore, people have assured work.
(ii) They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act,Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops Act, etc.
(iii) They are called organized because they have some processes and procedures.
Q.8 What is an unorganized sector? Explain.
A.(i) An unorganized sector is a sector which is not registered by the government.
(ii) The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
(iii)There are rules and regulations, but these are not followed.
Q.9 Who are the people that work in an unorganized sector? Mention any two social values which you have learnt from the working conditions of unorganized sector.
A. (i) In the rural areas, the unorganized sector mostly comprises the landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths).
(ii) In the Urban areas, the unorganized sector mainly comprises workers in small –scale industry, casual workers in construction trade and transport, etc. It also consists of those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers, etc.
(iii) Majority of workers from scheduled casters tribes and backward communities find themselves in the unorganized sector.
(i)Most of the people working in unorganized sector belong to backward communities.
(ii) These workers face social discrimination.
Q.10 Distinguish between final goods and the intermediate goods.
|Final Goods||Intermediate goods|
|(i)The goods which are used either for final consumption or for capital formation.
(ii) The value of final goods is included in the national income.
(iii)Examples, television bread or bakery products, etc.
|(i)The goods which are used up in producing the final goods and services.
(ii) The value of inter-mediate goods is not included in the national income.
(iii) Example. flour, cotton, etc.
Q.11 Distinguish between the organized and the unorganized sector.[CBSE Sept.2010,2012,2015,2019(O)]
|Organised Sector||Unorganised sector|
|(i)The sector is registered by the government.
(ii) The terms of employment are regular.
(iii) The sector is governed by various laws such as the Factories Act,Minimum wages Act, etc.
(iv)This sector includes banks, hospitals, schools etc.
|(i)The sector is not registered by the government.
(ii)The terms of employment are not regular.
(iii) The sector is not governed by any act.
(iv) This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs, etc.
Q.12 Distinguish between the public and the private sector[CBSE Sept,2010,2011,2012]
State any four features of public and private sector.[CBSE 2014,2015]
|Public sector||Private sector|
|(i)It is controlled and managed by the government.
(ii) The main aim of the sector is public welfare.
(iii) The sector provides basic facilities like education, health, food and security to the people.
(iv) For example, the Indian Railways, the Post Office and the BSNL.
|(i)It is controlled and managed by an individual or a group of individuals.
(ii)The main aim of the sector is to earn maximum profits.
(iii) The sector provides consumer goods to the people.
(iv) For example, the Reliance, TISCO etc.
Q.13 What are the objectives of NREGA 2005 ?[CBSE Sept.2010,2011,2012,2015]
A. (i) This scheme targets the scheduled Casters, Scheduled Tribes and the poor women, who suffer from poverty.
(ii) To provide livelihood to the people below the poverty line, this scheme guarantees 100 days of wages employment in a year to every rural household in the country.
(iii) Under this scheme, the Gram Panchayat after proper verification will register households. The job card to registered household, and issue job cards to registered households. The job card is the legal document that entitles a person to ask for work under the Act and to get work, failing which an unemployment allowance would be payable.
Q.14 What are the two sectors of economic activities on the basis of the ownership of resources? Explain.
A.The public and the private sector.
(a) Public Sector: It is the sector which is controlled, managed and owned by the government. For example, the Indian Railways.
(b) Private sector: A private sector is owned, controlled and manged by an individual or by a group of individuals. For example, the Reliance Industries Ltd.
Q.15 Describe any four points of importance of primary sector in the Indian economy.[CBSE 2008 Comp.(D)]
A.(i) Primary sector contributes more than 20% to the GDP of india.
(ii) Its employment share is more than 55%.
(iii)It is most laboring sector of Indian economy.
(iv) It covers agriculture, diary, fishing, forestry which all contribute to the Indian economy.
Q.16 Enumerate the various causes of rural unemployment in India.[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) Lack of skill and education: The most important factor responsible for rural unemployment is lack of education and skill.
(ii) Domination of primary sector: Most of the people of rural areas are involved in primary activities. The possibility of primary activities. The possibility of unemployment in primary sector is, more.
(iii) Lack of Industrialization: Even after more than 60 years of independence more than 80% of the people are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Chances of disguised unemployment are very high in agriculture.
Q.17 How can employment opportunities be generated in the tourism and information and technology centres ? [CBSE 2013]
A.(i) Government should encourage tourism by providing more facilities to the tourists.
(ii) Medical treatment in India is very cheap as compared to developed nations.
(iii) Vocational training should be merged in main-stream education pattern.
(iv)Research and development work should be promoted.
(v) Government should set up more technology parks.
Long Answer Type Questions(4/5 Marks each)
Q.1 ‘while estimating the national income,only the value of the final goods and services is used .’Explain with the help of an example.
A. While estimating the performance of a sector, only the value of final goods and services is used. This is for avoiding double counting.’The counting of the value of a product more than once is called as double counting.”This leads to the overestimation of the value of goods and services produced. Let us understand the concept with the help of an example-A farmer produces one ton of wheat, and a sells it for rupee 100 to a flour mill. A far as the farmer is concerned, the sale of wheat, is a final sale for him. But the purchase of wheat is a final sale for him. But the purchase of wheat by the flour mill is an intermediate goods. He converts the wheat into flour and sells it to a baker for rupee 150. The flour mill treats the flour as a final product, but for baker it is intermediate goods. The baker sells the bread to the shopkeeper for rupee 200, and the shopkeeper to the consumer for rupee 250.
Value of output = Farmer (rupee 100)+Flour mill(rupee 150)+ Baker (rupee 200)+ Shopkeeper (rupee 250)=rupee 700
So while calculating the national income only the value of the final output,i.e rupee 250 should be included not rupee 700.
Q.2 Why is the tertiary sector becoming so important in india ? Give at least four reasons.[CBSE 2008,2009(D)Sept.2011,2012]
Why is tertiary sector growing so rapidly in India ? Explain it with four reasons. [CBSE Sept.2011,14]
A.(i) Basic services: In any country, several services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative offices, municipal corporations defence, transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are required. These can be considered as basic services. In a developing country, the government has to take the responsibility for the provision of these services.
As more and more people are being employed to provide the basic services to the people, the share of the tertiary sector in the Gross Domestic Product, the GDP is increasing.
(ii) More income more services: The per capita income in our country is rising. As the income level rises, people demand more services like tourism.shopping centres, schools, professional training centres, banks, etc.
(iii) Development of means of transport and communication: The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport communication, trade , etc. A;; these are under the tertiary sector.
(iv) New services: With modermisation and globalization, some new services based on information and communication technology have become important and essential. The production of these services has been rising rapidly.
Q.3 Explain any four points of importance of Secondary sector in the Indian economy.[CBSE Comp.2008(D),13]
A.(i) The secondary sector contributes more than 20% to the GDP of india.
(ii) It provides goods to the people like cloth, sugarcane, iron, and steel.
(iii)It provides employment to the people.
(iv) The secondary sector promotes the development of the primary and the tertiary sector.
Q.4 Suggest some ways which can be helpful in creating employment in rural areas. [CBSE Sept.2010,2011]
What steps should be taken to create more employment? Explain.[CBSE Sept.2010,2011]
How to create more employment in rural areas? Explain with examples.[CBSE Sept.2011,2012]
A.(i) Diversification of agriculture: More than 60 per cent workers are employed in agriculture. But our farmers are producing only limited crops. There is need to diversify agriculture. Farmers should be encouraged to adopt pisciculture, horticulture, animal rearing,etc.along with cultivation of crops.
(ii) Cheap credit: Most of the farmers depend on informal of credit,i.e moneylenders, relatives, relatives, traders, etc.whi charge a very high rate of interest. Government banks to provide loans to the farmers at cheaper rates.
(iii) Provision of basic facilities: Our rural areas lack the basic facilities like roads, transportation, banking, warehouses, markets, etc. The government should invest some money in these sectors so that the Indian villages can be lined to other markets. This activity can provide productive employment to not just farmers, but also to others such as those in services like transport or trade.
(iv) Promotion of local industries and other activities: Another way to tackle this problem is to identify, promote and locate industries, especially the cottage and small-scale industries in semi-rural areas, where a large number of people may be employed. It also includes setting up a flour or rice mill to procure and process these and sell in the cities. In villages, near forest areas, honey collection centres can be started where farmers can come and sell wild honey.
Q.5 What are advantages of working in an organized sector ?[CBSE Sept.2011]
What is an organised sector? Describe its working conditions [CBSE 2009(D)]
A. An organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular and.therefore people have assured work. They are registered by the government and have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act, the Minimum Wages Act, the Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops Act, etc.
(i) Workers in the organized sector enjoy security of employment.
(ii) They work only for a fixed number of hours. If they work more, they have to be paid overtime by the employer.
(iii) They also get several other benefits form the employers like paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity, etc.
(iii)They also get several other benefits from the employers like paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity, etc.
(iv) They also get medical benefits and under the laws, the factory manger has to ensure facilities like drinking water and a safe working environment.
Q.6 Explain the role of government in the public sector.[CBSE Sept.2013]
A.(i)Development of infrastructure: The pace of industrial development cannot be accelerated without the establishment of infrastructure. Its development requires huge capital investment, which cannot be mobilized by the private sector. Moreover, these projects do not promise high profits.
(ii)Development of backward areas:The goal of achieving a reduction in economic inequality between regions becomes easy to reach.If industries are set up in the backward areas. But the profit seeking private industrialists often are not enthusiastic enough to set up industry in the backward regions. The government, therefore, finds it necessary to start industrial production in these areas on its own.
(iii) Basic facilities: There are a large number of activities which are the primary responsibility of the government. The government must spend on these. Providing health, quality education, particularly elementary education, is the duty of the government. India ‘s size of illiterate population is one of the largest in the world.
(iv) Other problems: There are many other problems like malnourishment, high infant mortality rate, unsafe drinking water, lack of housing facilities, etc. which need special attention. These problems can be solved only with the help of the government.
Q.7 Do you agree that agriculture is an activity of the unorganized sector in India. Give any four points.[CBSE Sept.2010.2012]
A. Yes,Agriculture in india is an activity of the unorganized sector.
(i) Most of the workers in agriculture are ill paid.
(ii) Agriculture sector faces the problem of underemployment.
(iii) Most of the workers working in agriculture are employed only during harvesting and sowing season.
(iv)Most of the farmers are depedent on moneylenders and relatives for their loan requiewmwnts.
Q.8 How can workers in the unorganized sector be protected? Explain.[CBSE Sept.2010,2011]
A.(i) Government can fix the minimum wages rate and working hours.
(ii) Government can provide cheap loans to the self employed people.
(iii) Government can provide cheap and affordable basic services like education, health, food to these workers.
(iv) Government can frame new laws which can provide provision for overtime,paid leave, leave due to sickness etc.
Q.9 Wrie two groups of the people working in unorganized sector who are in need of protection. How can the government protect them ?[CBSE Sept.2010]
A.(i) In the rural areas, the unorganized sector mostly comprises the landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans(such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths).
(ii) In the urban areas, the unorganized sector mainly comperses workers in small –scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport, etc. It also consist of those who work as street vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers, etc.
Role of Government:
- Government can provide them cheap loans.
- Government can provide basic facilities like education, food, health at cheap and affordable rate.
Q.10 Explain how a shift has taken between sector in developed countries.[CBSE Sept.2011]
A.(i) At initial stages of development, it was the primary sector which dominated. Most of the people were employed in the primary sector only.
(ii)With the introduction of new methods of farming and manufacturing people started working in other activities i.e manufacturing. So secondary sector gradually became the most important in total production and employment.
(iii)The domination of service sector is due to globalization of the world economy.
Q.11 Compare the different sectors.
Distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary sector.
|Primary Sector||Secondary Sector||Tertiary Sector|
|(i)It is known as agriculture and allied services sector.
(ii) This sector produces goods and services by exploiting natural resources.
(iii)This sector unorganized and use traditional techniques.
(iv)Activities related to agriculture forestry fishing, mining and animal husbandary are included in this sector.
(v) This sector continue to be the largest employer in most of the developing nations like that of India.
|(i)It is known manufacturing sector.
(ii) This sector transforms one good into another by creting more utility from it.
(iii) It is organized sector and use better techniques.
(iv) It includes manufacturing units, small-scale units, large firms, big corporate and multinational corporations.
(v)This sector has failed to provide employment to the surplus workers of primary sector.
|(i)It is known service sector.
(ii) This sector provides useful services to primary and secondary sectors for the smooth functioning of their working.
(iii)It is organized sector and use better techniques.
(iv)Services related to banking, insurance, trade and communication come in this sector.
(v) This sector’s sharing in the employment is increasing.
NCERT EXERCISE for Sectors of the Indian Economy Chapter 2 Economics
Q.1 Fill in the blanks using the correct options given in the brackets:
(i) Employment in the service sector………………………..increased to the same extent as production.(has/has not)
(ii) Workers in the ……………………………sector do not produce goods. (tertiary/agricultural)
(iii) Most of the workers in the…………………….sector enjoy job security. (organized/unorganized)
(iv) A…………………………..proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganized sector.(large /small).
(v) Cotton is a…………………………product and cloth is a …………………….product.(natural/manufactured)
(vi) The activities in primary, secondary and tertiary sector are……………………..(independent/interdependent)
A.(i) has not
(v) Natural manufactured
Q.2 Choose the correct Answer:
(a)The sector are classified into public and private sector on the basis of………………………….
(ii)The nature of economic activity
(iii)Ownership of enterprises
(iv) Number of workers employed in the enterprise.
A.(iii)Ownership of enterprises.
(b)Production of a commodity mostly through the natural process, is an activity in the……………….sector.
(C)GDP is the sum total of the value of ……………………………goods produced during a particular year.
(i)all goods and services
(ii)all final goods and services.
(iii)all intermediate goods and services.
(iv)all intermediate and final goods and services.
A.(ii) all final goods and services.
(d) In terms of the GDP the share of the tertiary sector in 2011-12 is…………………………..
(i)between 20 per cent to 30 per cent.
(ii)between 30 per cent to 40 per cent.
(iii)between 50 per cent to 60 per cent.
(iv)70 per cent.
A.(iii)between 50 per cent 60 per cent.
Q.3 Match the following:
|Problems faced by the farming sector.||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land.
2. Fluctuations in income.
3. Debit burden.
4. No job in the off season.
5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest.
|(a)Setting up agro-based mills.
(b)Cooperative marketing societies.
(d)Construction of canals by the government.
(e)Banks to provide credit with low interest.
A. 1-(d); 2.-(c); 3,-(e); 4.(a); 5.-(b)
Q.4 Find the odd one out,and answer ,why:
(iv) MTNL, the Indian Railways. Air India, the SAHARA Airlines, the All India Radio.
A.(i) The Railway Guide is the odd one, because he is working in an organized sector.
(ii) The vegetable vendor is the odd, one, because he is often unskilled, while the other are skilled workers.
(iii)The cobbler is the odd one because he works in an unorganized sector.
(iv) The SAHARA Airlines is the odd one because it is in the private sector.
Q.5 A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat, and found the following: What is the proportion of workers in the unorganized sector in the city (in per cent)?
|Place of work||Nature of employment||Per cent of working people|
|In offices and factories registered with the government.
Own shops,offices,clinics in market places with formal licence.
People working on the street,construction workers,domestic workers.
Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government.
A.In the unorganized sector,there are 20% +50% =70% people.
Q.6 Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary. secondary and tertiary is usefull ? Explain how.
How is the classification of economic activities into primary,secondary and tertiary useful ? Explain .[CBSE 2013]
Do you agree that classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful ? Justify your answer giving three valid arguments .[CBSE 2012]
A. It is very useful to classify the economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary sector.
(i) We can find out how many workers are working in different sectors.
(ii) We can find out what is the share of each sector in the Gross Domestic Product or the GDP.
(iii) We can find out which sector is growing, and which sector is lagging behind.
(iv) We can also find out the interdependence of each other.
Q.7 For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, why should one focus on employment and the GDP ? Could there be other issues which should be examined ? Discuss.
A.Employment: Employment has been the focus because it gives solution to many economic problems like poverty.
GDP:The Gross Domestic Product helps us to find out the share of each other in the national income.
Other Issue: Protection of environment, growth of basic services like education, health sanitation etc.
Q.8 Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living.In what way,can you classify them ? Explain your choice.
A. Students should write themselves.
Q.9 How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors ? lllustrate with a few examples [CBSE Sept.,2011,2013]examples.
A.(i) Tertiary sector includes the activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors.
(ii)These activities by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For examples, goods but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For examples, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by truck or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops. At times, it may be necessary to store these in godowns. We also may need to talk to other over telephone or send letters (communication) or borrow money from banks(banking) to help production and trade.
- Transport, storage, communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary activities. Since these activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector.
- The sector of tertiary sector is on the rise in most of the developing nations.
Q.10 What do you understand by disguised unemployment ? Explain with an example, each from the urban and rural areas.[CBSE Sept.2011,2012]
A.Refer Q.No.6,Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.11 Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
|Open Unemployment||Disguised Unemployment|
|(i)Under this,the worker is ready to work,but he is unable to find any work.
(ii)It can occur in any sector.
|(i)Under this the worker is working, but if he is removed, the pro-duction does not fall.
(ii) It occurs mainly in agriculture.
Q.12 “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role.in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree ?Give reasons in support of your answer.
How far is it correct to say that in recent past,India has experienced some significant changes in the contribution to GDP by the service sector ? Explain.[CBSE 2013]
A. I do not agree with the statement as tertiary sector plays a significant role in the development of Indian economy.
- Contribution to other sectors:Tertiary sector provide support services like transportation,communication ,banking etc. to both primary as well as secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and than sold in the wholesale or retail shops.At times,it may be necessary to store these in godowns.
- Share in GDP:Tertiary sector share in GDP is rising very fast.The share of tertiary sector in 1970-71 was only 30% whereas it has risen to more than 50% in 2010-11.
- Share in employment: The share of tertiary sector in providing employment is also on the rise.In 1970-71 only 21% of the total work force of india was employed in the tertiary sector whereas the data has risen to more than 20% in 2009-10.
Q.13 The service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these ?
A.(i)Skilled and educated people.
(ii) Unskilled and uneducated people.
Skilled and educated people include engineers, doctor, teachers ,defence persons,police,etc.whereas the unskilled and the uneducated people usually include shopkeepers, traders, farm labourers, etc.
Q.14 Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view ?Give reasons in support of your answer.[CBSE Sept.2012]
A.Refer Q.No.13 .HOTS Questions.
Q.15 How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
For details ,refer 11,Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.16 Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sectors[CBSE 2015]
For details refer 11, Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.17 Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005[CBSE Sept.2011]
A.Refer Q.No.13 , Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.18 Using examples from your area,compare and contrast the activities and functions of the private and the public sectors.
A. Refer Q.No,12, Short Answer Type Questions.
Q.19 Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
|Well managed organization||Badly managed organisation|
Q.20 Give a few examples of the public sector activities ,and explain why the government has taken them up.
A.Refer Q.No.14 HOTS Questions.
Q.21 Explain how the public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Q.Refer Q.No.6 Long Answer type Questions.
Q.22 The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health.Explain with examples.
A.Refer Q.No.13 HOTS Questions.
Q.23The following table gives the GDP IN Rupees(crores) by the three sectors.
(i)Calculate the share of the three sectors in the GDP FOR 1950 Aand 2011.
(ii)Shows the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii)What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?
A.Total GDP in 1950
Total GDP in 2011
(ii)and (iii) are class Activity
Higher Order Thinking Skills (Hots) Questions
Q.1 Study the given bar graph carefully,and answer the following questions:
(i) Which was the largest producing sector in 1970-71 ?
(ii) Which was the largest producing sector in 2011-12 ?[CBSE 2008(D)]
(iii) Can you say which sector has grown the most over the past thirty years ?
(iv)What was the GDP of india in 2011-12 ?
A. (i) Primary sector.
(ii) Tertiary sector.
(iii)It is service or the tertiary sector which has grown the most over the past thirty years.
(iv) More than 5000000 crore rupees.
Q.2 Study the given bar graph and answer the following questions:
(i) What was the share of the primary sector in the GDP in 1970-71 ?
(ii) which sector has the highest share in the year 2011-12?
(iii)Which sector has the lowest share in the year 2011-12 ?
A. (i) Primary sector-45% (ii)Tertiary sector.
(iii) Primary sector
Q.3 Study the given bar graph and answer the following questions:
(i) What was the share of the primary sector in employment in the year 1970-71 ?
(ii) What was the share of primary sector in employment in the year 2011-12 ?
(iii) Which sector has the lowest share in the employment in 2011-12 ?
A.(i) More than 70% (ii) 49%
(ii) Secondary sector.
(iii) (a) For example, sugarcane is processed and covnverted to sugar.
(b) Cotton is processed and converted to yarn.
Q.8 What is GDP ? Assess the contribution of secondary and Tertiary Sectors to the GDP of india. [CBSE 2012]
A.(i) Gross Domestic Product(GDP) refers to the money value of final goods and services produced in each other.
(ii)(a) The contribution of secondary sector to the Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in india is about 24%.
(b)The contribution of tertiary sector to the Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in india is about 53%.
Q.9 State any these adverse effects of unemployment.[CBSE 2013]
A.(i) Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the going wages, cannot find jobs. So unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource.
(ii) People who are an asset for the economy, tum into a liability.
(iii) There is a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the youth.
(iv)People donot have enough money to support their. Inability of educated people who are wiling to work to find gainful employment implies a great social waste.
(v)Unemployment tends to increase economic overload. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increase. The quality of life of an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
Q.10 On the basis of the given table, answer the following questions:
Percentages share of primary sector in GDP and employment
|Share in GDP 45%||22%|
|Share in employment 72%||61%|
- What changes do you observe in the primary sector in the field of employment?
- Mention the percentages share of primary sector in GDP in 1973.
- Why does the primary sector continue to be the largest employer in India ?[CBSE 2013]
A.(a) It is observed that there has been a nominal change in primary sector in the field of employment.The percentages share of primary sector in employment decreased from 72% in 1973 to only 61% in 2003.
(b) The percentages share of primary sector in GDP in 1973 was 45%.
(c) This is because ,not enough jobs were created in the secondary and tertiary sectors.Even though industrial output went up by eight times during the period, employment in the industry sector went up by only 2.5 times,Similarly ,while production in the service sector rose by 11 time, employment in this sector rose less than three times.
Q.11 Describe the estimates of Planning Commission to create jobs in tourism and education.
A.(i) Planning Commission estimates that nearly 20 lakh jobs can be created in education sector alone.
(ii) More children to attend school, more teachers and more infrastructure will be required.
(iii) Planning Commission estimate that nearly 35 lakh jobs can be created in tourism sector.
(iv) Regional craft, cottage industry also can create jobs.
(v) New services like IT also may be job-generators.
Q.12 How can we create more employment opportunities in urban areas ?Explain with examples .[CBSE 2012]
Suggest any three ways to create more employment avenues in urban sector.[CBSE 2011]
A. Ways to increase employment opportunities:
(i) Loan should be given at cheap rates and at less documentation.
(ii) Industries should be located where a large number of people may be employed.
(iii) Educational facilities should be improved and new schools should be set up.Education system should be made employment-oriented.Vocational training should be merged in mainstream education pattern.
(iv) Small-scale industries should be encouraged,Regional craft industries and services should be promoted.
(v) Tourism industries should be promoted.
Q.13 What are the disadvantages of working in an unorganized sector? Suggest any two ways to protect the workers working in an unorganized sector .
Why is working in an unorganized sector not considered secure? [CBSE 2013]
A.(i) The organized sector is characterized by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government.
(ii) Workers working in an unorganised sector get less wages.
(iii)There is a no provision for overtime,paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness, etc.
(iv) Employment is subject to high degree of insecurity.
(v) A large number of people doing small jobs such as selling on the street or doing repair work comes under the unorganized sector.
(i) Expanding the base of organized sector.
(ii) Spread of Education.
Q.14 Explain the role of public sector. Suggest any two ways to improve the working of public sector or government. [CBSE Sept,2012]
Why is public sector required to provide certain things at reasonable cost ?[CBSE 2013]
Identify any five activities where the government must spend for the welfare of the people and why ?[CBSE 2012]
How far is it correct to say that several sevices which cannot be provided by private sector,can be provided by the public sector ?Explain.[CBSE 2012]
A.(i)There are several things needed by the society as a whole like sanitation system,safe drinking water, education, etc.which the private sector will not provide at reasonable cost.
(ii) There are some activities, which the government has to support. The private sector may not continue their production or business unless government encourages it. For example, selling electricity at the cost of generation.
(iii) Similarly, the government in India buys wheat, and rice from farmers at ‘fair price’.This it stores in its godowns and sells at a lower price to consumers through ration shops. The government has to bear some of the cost. In this way,the government supports both farmers and consumers.
(v) It is also the duty of the government to take care of the poorest and most ignored regions of the country through increased spending in such areas.
Improvement of working of government:
(i)Citizens should actively participate in the election procedure.
(ii) People should use RTI whenever not satisfied with any government department.
Q.15 Explain the interdependence of all the three economic sectors giving examples from transportation system.[CBSE 2013]
How are the three sectors of economy interdependent? Explain with five suitable examples.[CBSE 2012]
‘Economic activities, though grouped into three different categories, are highly interdependent.’ Discuss [CBSE 2010]
A.(i) When we exploit resources, it is an activity to the primary sector e.g, agriculture, mining, foresty.
(ii) The natural resources are changed into other forms through the process of manufacturing,i.e,manufacturing sector uses natural products as it raw materials.
(iii)All services that enable us to purse primary and secondary activities are listed as teritiary activity, For example, transport, education, medical service.
(iv) Primary and secondary activities cannot produce a good unless they are aided by the tertiary sector.
(v) Sevice sector does not produce a good For example, the internet café, ATM booth, call centers are the sevices required for manufacturing industries etc. Railways roads are needed to assist agricultural production.
Q.16 Why is agriculture an activity of unorganized sector in India ? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Agriculture is an activity of unorganized sector in India. Do you agree with statement ? Justify your answer with suitable examples [CBSE 2012]
A.(i) There is no fixed number of working hours.The labourers have to work normally for 10-12 hours without paid overtime.
(ii) Agricultural labourers get no other allowances apart from daily wages.
(iii) Agricultura labourers have no job security.
(iv) Government rules and regulations to protect the labourers are not followed.
(v) They are often exploited and not paid a fair wage.
Q.17 “Income and employment will increase it the farmers are provided irrigation and marketing facilities”.Justify the statement.
A.(i)If a new dam is constructed and canals are dug to irrigate farms. This could lead to a lot of employment generation withing the agricultural sector itself reducing the problem of underemployment.
(ii) With assured means of irrigation production will increase.
(iii) Farmers would like to sell the surplus in the market.
(iv) For this they may be required to transport their products to a nearly town. If the government invests some money in transportation and storage of crops, or makes better rural roads this activity can provide productive employment do not just farmers but also others such as those in services like transport or trade.